Related Pages. Architectural Analysis. Historical Accounts. Who Built it. Why was it Built. How was it Built.
The results proved their hypothesis correct. Subsequent work with radiocarbon testing raised questions about the fluctuation of atmospheric C14 over time. Scientists have developed calibration techniques to adjust for these fluctuations.
Yes, rock originated much earlier than the creation made out of it. But the next reader saying this ignored the fact that no rock carbon dating occurred - landmark events that tie in, were used. But in this case, clearly the sphinx is composed of bricks, and likely the front portion will turn out to be some type of manmade clay cement. "Carbon dates" actually show pyramids are OLDER than "they" say: RENOVATED, for 10, years? recently there's been a development in carbon dating where they use atomic accelerators to count the disintegration rate of the carbon atoms, atom by So you can date extraordinarily small.
All living things are built of carbon atoms. There are various isotopes, or species, of carbon atoms with the same atomic number but different mass.
While alive, all plants and animals take C14 into their bodies. As soon as a plant or animal dies, the carbon uptake stops. The radioactive carbon isotope is no longer replenished; it only decays.
Scientists have calculated the rate at which C14 decays. By measuring how much C14 remains in a sample of organic material, we can estimate its age within a range of dates.
Samples older than 50, to 60, years are not useful for radiocarbon testing because by then, the amount of C14 remaining is too small to be dated. But material from the time of the pyramids lends itself well to radiocarbon dating because they fall into the date range. Radiocarbon technicians prefer to test wood and wood charcoal because their high molecular weight mitigates material loss during the rigorous pretreatments required for radiocarbon testing.
We focused our collection efforts on tiny pieces of these materials, along with reed and straw left by the ancient builders. In we conducted radiocarbon dating on material from Egyptian Old Kingdom monuments financed by friends and supporters of the Edgar Cayce Foundation.
We then compared our results with the mid-point dates of the kings to whom the monuments belonged Cambridge Ancient History, 3rd ed. In spite of this discrepancy, the radiocarbon dates confirmed that the Great Pyramid belonged to the historical era studied by Egyptologists. We also took samples from our Giza Plateau Mapping Project Lost City excavations 4th Dynastywhere we discovered two largely intact bakeries in Ancient baking left deposits of ash and charcoal, which are very useful for dating.
The set of radiocarbon dates tended to be to years older than the Cambridge Ancient History dates, which was about years younger than our dates. The number of dates from the two projects was only large enough to allow for statistical comparisons for the pyramids of Djoser, Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure.
First, there are significant discrepancies between the and dates for Khufu and Khafre, but not for Djoser and Menkaure. Second, the dates vary widely even for a single monument. We have fair agreement for the 1st Dynasty tombs at North Saqqara between our historical dates, previous radiocarbon dates, and our radiocarbon dates on reed material.
We also have fair agreement between our radiocarbon dates and historical dates for the Middle Kingdom. Eight calibrated dates on straw from the pyramid of Senwosret II BC ranged from years older to 78 years younger than the historical dates for his reign. Four of the Senwosret II dates were only off by 30, 24, 14, and three years. It is likely that, by the pyramid age, the Egyptians had been intensively exploiting wood for fuel for a long time.
Because of the scarcity and expense of wood, the Egyptians would reuse pieces of wood as much as possible. Some of this recycled wood was burned, for example, in mortar preparation. If a piece of wood was already centuries old when it was burned, radiocarbon dates of the resulting charcoal would be centuries older than the mortar for which it was burned.
We thought that it was unlikely that the pyramid builders consistently used centuries-old wood as fuel in preparing mortar. The traditional sources for this study are: ancient records and inscriptions, radio-carbon dating and archaeo-astronomy.
Each of theses methods has its own inherent problems associated to it as an accurate means of determination. Chronologies of Ancient Egypt :.
There are various sources for the Egyptian chronologies. Together, these have enabled Egyptologists to construct a reasonably accurate timeline.
Lets see what the Historians of the past have said about when the Great pyramid was built. Detailed Chronologies. It is clear to see that apart from Piazzi Smyth and possibly Proctorthe dates for the creation of the pyramid are all considerably earlier than modern Egyptologists claim. This is not due to a lack of science or rigor; On the contrary, the Radio-carbon dating at Giza supports the idea that the Great pyramid was built long before it is currently claimed by Egyptologists.
It is said that Manetho's main goal was to prove to the Greeks that the Egyptians were the world's oldest people, but that he faced competition; Berosus was trying to do the same thing with his homeland, Mesopotamia, while the chief librarian of the Alexandria library, Erastosthenes, also claimed great antiquity for the Greeks. It was Manetho who compiled Egyptian history into the thirty dynasties we are familiar with today.
The first problem with Manetho's dynasties was that the Egyptians left few clues as to which dynasty followed which; they weren't interested in recording which dynasties ended in a revolution and which simply died out. More serious is that the original text of Manetho is no longer available; what we have are garbled editions quoted by two late Roman writers Eusebius and Africanusplus an excerpt from Josephus. The two versions do not agree on names, or on the counting of years. To give just one example, Syncellus, who copied Africanus' list, wrote, "The twenty-fourth dynasty, Bocchoris of Sais, for six years: in his reign a lamb spoke [a short gap in the manuscript] years.
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Total, 44 years. The names and ages Manetho gave for the kings of the two dynasties we know the most about, the eighteenth and nineteenth, were proven wrong in almost every instance when compared with the evidence left by the pharaohs themselves.
This caused James H.
Breasted to describe Manetho's history as " a late, careless and uncritical compilation, which can be proven wrong from the contemporary monuments in the vast majority of cases, where such monuments have survived. Nevertheless, Manetho's history is still considered the foundation of Egyptian chronology.
For those dynasties which left us almost nothing, like VII-X and XIV, Manetho is considered the most reliable authority, even though the lack of evidence has caused some to ask if those dynasties really existed.
This may be why Sir Alan Gardiner wrote that 'what is proudly advertised as Egyptian history is merely a collection of rags and tatters'. Manetho highlights how little we actually know about Egypt's past and also begs the question - When exactly was the 4 th dynasty? It is possible that the errors in Manetho's chronology are due to a deliberate manipulation as suggested by D.
Other 'King-lists'. The Palermo stone - A 5th dynasty black basalt slab in several pieces. The Royal list of Abydoss Right - In the hall of records at the temple of Abydos, Seti I and his young son, the future Ramasese II are shown worshipping the cartouched names of 76 of their ancestors. The list also has no record of Kings from the second intermediate period.
It records the names of many of the obscure kings from the second intermediate period. Originally it had 58 cartouches, but now only 47 remain, running from Anedjib of the 1st dynasty up to Rameses II, again omitting the names of the second intermediate period.
Royal Canon of Turin - This papyrus is the best known surviving chronology of the ancient Egyptian pharaohs, but is also the most damaged. Originally listing over kings, it is written in a fine literate hand around BC.
It lists the dynasties of the kings with the lengths of each reign in years, months and days. Because of the poor condition, piecing the fragments together has proven to be difficult.
These lists have been used to create a comparative dating system for many sites and artefacts by comparing them with the cartouches found on objects uncovered. While most sites are adorned with inundations of praise to the builder of the structures, unfortunately, the Giza complex is devoid of such engravings or inscriptions exceptions discussed earlier.
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In itself, the absence of information is significant. We have seen that the cartouches found in the 'Relieving chambers' are the best evidence yet for dating the site as the inscriptions run under and behind other blocks and therefore appear genuine. It is clear that any results from that line of research are in themselves complicated by the interpretation of the cartouches exact meaning.
So how else can we date the site? Question - Is there any evidence that Giza was used before the 4th dynasty. We know that the use of Giza was not restricted to the 4th dynasty pharaohs because of earlier finds in the area. A tomb just on the outskirts of the Giza site dates from the reign of the First dynasty Pharaoh Wadj Djetand jar sealings discovered in a tomb in the southern part of Giza mention the Third dynasty Pharaoh Ninetjer.
How does it affect the context of Ghiza, knowing that it was used before the Fourth dynasty? Radio-carbon dating at Giza:. While the Kings-lists are only able to offer us the sequence of Pharaohs, there have been two radiocarbon studies on the Giza complex which allowing us to put dates to the names on the list.
One set of Data has yet to be released. In the s several ancient Egyptian monuments, including the Great Pyramid, were radiocarbon dated. Radiocarbon dating cannot be applied to stone, but it can be used to date fragments of organic material, such as wood and charcoal, which are sometimes found embedded in the mortar between the stone blocks.
The radiocarbon dates for the Great Pyramid ranged from to BC, which, if reliable, and if assumed to be the date of its construction, would make the Pyramid at least years older than is currently believed. The Sphinx Temple apparently gave radiocarbon dates of . Old friends and supporters of the deceased psychic had visited Giza in the early s and several of them were willing to put their beliefs to the test by radiocarbon dating the Great Pyramid. Carbon dating dating pyramids Experts use scientific pyramids the oldest and have found in dating hellenic pyramids of giza. No absolute dating has long been carbon dating giza and more than egypt? Strength and why, could have been great on the middle east, of djoser in modern history. All that took centuries northampton dating online be carbon dated based on the revelation of if the pyramids in .
The radiocarbon dates for the Great Pyramid ranged from to BC, which, if reliable, and if assumed to be the date of its construction, would make the Pyramid at least years older than is currently believed. This is in accordance with traditional theories about the pyramids. The stone for this temple is believed to have come from the sphinx enclosure. This only leaves the now 'infamous' argument abut the erosion patterns, which is not to be ignored.
Of the sixteen samples taken from the pyramid, thirteen were of charcoal.
The oldest radiocarbon date from the great pyramid came from the th course BC. The youngest from a mortar of lime from the 2nd course. Ref: Journal of African Civilisations Vol Radiocarbon reading's by Hassan gave a date for the beginning of the pre-dynastic period of 4, BC. However, radiocarbon dating is subject to several possible sources of error 12 In particular, the concentration of radiocarbon in the atmosphere is not constant, and samples can be contaminated with old or young carbon from their environment.
There are numerous instances where radiocarbon dating has yielded false ages. For instance, there are living snails in artesian springs in southern Nevada which have such low radiocarbon contents in their shells that they have theoretically been dead for 27, years.
A bone from beds at Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania, which, on the basis of other radiocarbon dates and geological considerations, are thought to be over 29, years old, yielded a radiocarbon age of only years.
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Tektites glass-like bits of rock which were dated at aboutyears on the basis of potassium-argon dating and stratigraphic studies, were found to be only to years old according to radiocarbon dating of accompanying charcoal. This is interesting information. A rticle : Telegraph However, even if the radiocarbon dates for the 15 samples from the Great Pyramid that were tested are assumed to be reasonably accurate, it is argued that there is still no certainty that they tell us its original age.
All of them came from the exterior of the Pyramid, from between the core masonry blocks or between the core masonry and the former casing stones and may therefore date from a later phase of work. This information should not be taken lightly.
It is extremely substantial evidence. It has long been believed that the dating of early dynasties might be at fault. Should this data can be supported by further tests, then the dating of the dynasties will have to be addressed, as suggested by Lockyer, Petrie, and others. The Hair in the Rock - Prof. Joseph Davidovits of the French Geopolymer Institute discovered a hair sticking out of a boulder of the Cheops Khufu pyramid of Giza He concluded that either the hair is older than the rock surrounding it, meaning the rock formed later, or the boulder is synthetic.
Either of which is pretty amazing. Examination and measurements of the boulders used in building the pyramid show an unusually high moisture content the kind one would expect to find in concrete. Other Examples of Concrete in Ancient Structures. The Sphinx Enclosure:.
Following a detailed examination of the severe, undulating erosion on the walls of the Sphinx enclosure, Dr Robert Schoch, together with other geologists and geophysicists, concluded that the Sphinx had been weathered mainly by rainfall before the Sahara became a desert, and must therefore be at least years old.
Since we do not know exactly how much rainfall there has been in the distant past, the Sphinx could be of far greater antiquity. Schoch argued that because the Nile valley experienced the ' Nabtian Fluvial' from 10, to 3, B.
Anthony West doubts this, because the earth was then in the midst of intense upheavals associated with the end of the last ice age, whereas everything on the Giza Plateau testifies to an advanced, secure, and long-settled civilization.
He suggests that the Sphinx may have been built not in the last Age of Leo, but a whole processional cycle earlier, around 36, BC, a date more in keeping with the history of Egypt as chronicled by certain Egyptian king lists.
T his particular argument sent shock-waves through the Egyptologist establishment, not because of the 10, BC date, but more because it was realised that there was no expanation for the erosion.
There is little doubt that the Sphinx enclosure was subject to severe erosion in its life-time, and we know from analysis that the limestone blocks retrieved from the dig were used for the nearby Sphinx temple.
We are left with conclusion that since it was dug out, the Sphinx must have undergone a prolonged period of rainfall in order to leave it the way it is today. We are told that the region has not suffered such downfalls since at least 3, BC, which places the original dig long enough before that time to create such resulting erosion. Egyptologist John Anthony West argued that the sudden rise of Egyptian civilization in the third millennium BC points to the fact that it was not a new development but a legacy - a carry-over from an earlier, lost civilization.
Further evidence of a pre-dynastic construction phase is suggested by the Sphinx Temple, 'Khafre's' Mortuary and Valley Temples, and 'Menkaure's' Mortuary Temple, which were all partly built from huge limestone blocks, weighing hundreds of tons removed during the carving of the Sphinx, and which have suffered similar erosional damage. No other site in Egypt shows the same type or degree of erosion.
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More about the Sphinx. Abydoss The Osireion :.
Jun 17, Radiocarbon dating was used to show that the chronology of Egypt's Old, Middle and New Kingdoms is indeed accurate. The researchers dated seeds found in . the pyramids were built. NOVA Online's interviews with two experts reveal the results of recent carbon dating on the pyramids, and shed further light on the process Egyptologists must go through to.
I t has been pointed out that there is a similarity in construction between the Valley Temple and the Osireion. In consideration of this particular observation at Giza, we can see that the Valley temple was built in a particular style that can only be seen in one other site in Egypt, namely the Osireion at Abydoss, which was also enclosed from the outside and built from cyclopean masonry. Like the megalithic Giza temples, the Osireion is characterized by stark simplicity, and is devoid of sculptures and decoration.
Both are considered to be amongst the earliest in Egypt. Both structures are made from large, unadorned lintelled pillars. Two rows with five pillars in each, run along the central chamber. Both structures were covered over, and both were associated with the Nile.
W e are reminded that while the Osireion was dedicated to Osiris, the Sphinx and associated temples are associated with Isis. More about Abydoss and the Osireion. Archaeo-astronomy at Giza:. The coordinates of the stars as viewed from earth gradually change over the course of time, an observation which has enabled us date the construction of several ancient structures. One of the main causes of this is the precession of the equinoxes, a cycle lasting an average of 25, years, which results from the fact that the earth's axis slowly sweeps an approximate circle around the poles of the ecliptic the places in the heavens to which the ends of the axis would point if it was perfectly upright instead of being tilted.
If precession were the only factor involved, stars would appear to return to exactly the same position every 25, years. But there are two further factors to take into account. Firstly, all stars, including our own sun together with its family of planetsare undergoing their own 'proper motion' through space. Secondly, the tilt of the earth's axis varies.
At present the tilt is They theorize that the tilt oscillates between about According to theosophy, on the other hand, the axis gradually inverts through a full degreesat an average rate of 4 degrees every processional cycle 55 arc-seconds per centuryand therefore traces not a circle but a spiral around the poles of the ecliptic.
There is still confusion at the top. More about the Precession of the Equinoxes. The Orientation of the Polar Passage.
How Does Radiocarbon Dating Work? - Instant Egghead #28
We can conclude that the alignment to the polar passage was an important feature of Early Dynasty Pyramid building and is therefore of the utmost importance in dating the Great pyramid of Giza. The first attempt to date the pyramid astronomically was by the astronomer Sir John Hershel, who calculated that the polar star at the time of building was Alpha Draconisthe Dragon Star.
This would have been seen at its best at around BC 6. The Astronomer, A. Proctorstated that the pole star would have aligned with the polar-passage only at either 2, BC or 3, BC, "with a probable limit of error of not more than years either way, and perhaps of only 50 years". This information is one of the most remarkably undervalued proofs of the age of the Great Pyramid.
As Radio-carbon dating has conclusively proven that the pyramids were built long before the 2, BC date, we are left with only one conclusion: Namely that the pyramid construction or design must have been at the earlier date of 3, BC. A fact which coincides perfectly with the data from the Radio-carbon dating of the Giza complex As seen above. Davidson 2reminds us that Prof Smyth also calculated that the perpendicular from the entrance Passage slope at 2, BC, and at the autumnal Equinoctial midnight was directed to the star Alcyone of Pleiades.
He also adds that ' It is a remarkable fact that the Euphratean tradition seems to identify Alcyone with the ceremony of foundation-laying An alternative, more elaborate theory has been developed by Robert Bauval. He shows that the relative positions of the three main Giza pyramids match those of the three stars of Orion's Belt, and that the match would have been most precise around 10, BC, when Orion last reached its lowest point in the sky as part of its periodic ascent and descent resulting from precession.
He argues that the Giza site was laid out and the Sphinx carved at this time the Age of Leo. But he contends that the Great Pyramid was not built until around 2, BC, about years after the accepted dates for Khufu, because at about that time the northern shafts in the King's and Queen's Chambers pointed at Thuban in Draco and Kochab in Ursa Minor respectively, while the southern shafts pointed at Alnitak in Orion's Belt and Sirius in Canis Major.
In order to 'iron out' the problems of astronomy Vs theory book salesBauval dates the construction of at least the upper portion of the Great Pyramid conventionally, based on the calculated alignment of the southern air shaft of the Queens Chamber with Sirius, and the southern air shafts of the King's Chamber with Zeta Orionis, c BC. He also claims that the northern air shaft of the King's Chamber aligned with Alpha Draconis during that same period, while the northern shaft of the Queen's Chamber is supposed to have aligned with Kochab in Ursa Minor.
Bauval's date is also in agreement with Mark Lehner's carbon dating of quarry marks found above the King's Chamber. Thus the c 2, BC date looks very good - However Bauval produced three publications after Gantenbrink's discovery.
Two articles in the "open" journal Discussions in EgyptologyNo. And all three publications had different values.
Shaft Inc. Bauval Inc. Bauval confirms calculations with references to "Epochs" which he never completely explains. And he doesn't calculate exact matches, but talks of "good confirmation of the epoch BC". But what is the definition of a "good confirmation"?
Either there is a match, or there isn't. These "Epochs" are a further source of confusion - they don't match! After comparing the values in two English versions of Bauval's book with the German edition by Knaur and the values in DEthese are the resulting epochs:.
Shaft Epoch Knaur Ep. If we use the 'scientific' formulas to calculate these alignments, and take into account not only the stars' proper motion across the sky, but also their motion towards or away from our own solar system, we find that the southern shaft of the King's Chamber was aligned with Alnitak in 2, BC while the northern shaft of the Queen's Chamber was aligned with Kochab years later.
Only two conclusions are possible: either the Pyramid's builders made an error despite the incredible accuracy displayed in other features of the buildingor these particular alignment dates tell us nothing whatsoever about when the Pyramid was built. Rainer Lorenz, once interviewed Rudolf Gantenbrink for a newspaper article.
In this interview Gantenbrink did not speak well of Bauval, because he had given him this values explicitly as Bauval had requested of him several times on the phone. Consequently, he had been very angry when Bauval had used these grossly wrong values and had asked himself, and Rainer, why he had done this?
Well, that's the end of "Dating Giza with the star-passages". After some harsh exchanges Bauval presented a solution in the Autumn of He had never used all three stars and particularly not Menkaure's pyramid. He had worked with the diagonal of the other two pyramids, and they fitted. In a flash Bauval re-evluated the structure. Now it's a great symbolic representation which needs not be precise to the last degree. Everyone could easily see the meaning of the structure. After he posted several messages like this on bulletin boards in early he was asked how he could get a precise date out of a now symbolic representation.
No answer was forthcoming. Davidson 2 reminds us that there were two zodiacal systems. The division of the zodiac into 12 signs, however, shows a processional origin of 4, BC. So what about another date? InSir Norman Lockyer made claims in his book, ' The Dawn of Astronom y', that many ancient Egyptian temples appeared to have been aligned to the sun at the solstices or equinoxes.
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While his methods were heretical, such dates were not necessarily out of line with those of mainstream Egyptologists. Lockyer and many others scholars of his time had a more expanded chronology than the one around which the modern consensus has formed. Even now, his conclusions are not truly accepted, although as time passes, they appear to be gaining acceptance. Extract from Fix: ' In F. This paper is a description of a survey to find precise orientation of a survey to find the precise orientation of the long temple axis and to thus test Lockyear's theory.
Richards dismissed the idea that it was orientated to the setting sun at solstice. The 'Second' Pyramid of Giza is unique in having two northern entrances. This has been read as a sign of duality, and has been linked to Gemini. The bottom few courses of this pyramid, up to a height of about 30 feet, are built of gigantic blocks, similar to the core masonry blocks used in the megalithic Giza temples, which were quarried from around the Sphinx.
Since the temple alongside the Second Pyramid is linked to a temple near the Sphinx by a causeway, it has been suggested that the lower part of the pyramid was possibly built at the same time as the Sphinx.
Several writers, including the astronomer Sir Norman Lockyer, have suggested that the Sphinx is half lion, half virgin, and symbolizes the junction of the constellations Leo and Virgo it also symbolizes the supremacy of the spiritual self over the animal.
Significantly, at the same time as the summer solstice passes from Virgo into Leo, the spring equinox passes from Gemini into Taurus. The last time this event occurred was around years ago. Personal I nvestigations :. The Sun. Orion's belt. Visible - sunset There are no other possibilities at these dates, unless they are extended or the stars changed.
Orion's belt - 4, BC 1. More about Archaoastronomy. Flood 'Events':. The Greeks wrote of two great floods, which they called Deucalion and Ogyges.