Since , the PKK has been involved in an armed conflict with the Turkish state with cease-fires in - and - , seeking autonomy and greater political and cultural rights for Kurds inside the Republic of Turkey. It announced its existence the following year. The initial reasons given by the PKK for this were the oppression of Kurds in Turkey and under capitalism. The PKK has been involved in armed clashes with Turkish security forces since its foundation, but the full-scale insurgency did not begin until 15 August , when the PKK announced a Kurdish uprising. Since the conflict began, more than 40, people have died, most of whom were Kurdish civilians killed by the Turkish security forces. In , the PKK declared a ceasefire agreement and began slowly withdrawing its fighters to the Kurdistan Region of northern Iraq as part of the peace process between the Turkish state and the Kurdish minority.
This period saw the PKK involved in urban warfare. On 10 Novemberit was reported that the PKK bombed the Turkish consulate in StrasbourgFrance, in a joint operation with the Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armeniawhich they described as the beginning of a "fruitful collaboration" in a statement claiming responsibility. At the same time, some of its members started to receive training from the Palestine Liberation Organization in Lebanon's Bekaa Valleyin Syrian-controlled camps.
It later began to launch attacks and bombings against Turkish governmental installations, the military, and various institutions of the state. The organization focused on attacks against Turkish military targets, although civilian targets were also hit. From the mids, the organization began to lose the upper hand in its operations as a consequence of a change of tactics by Turkey and Syria's steady abandonment of support for the group. The group also had lost its support from Saddam Hussein.
From tothe organization began to use suicide bombers, VBIED, and ambush attacks against military and police bases. The role of suicide bombers, especially female ones were encouraged and mythologised by giving them the status of a "goddess of freedom", and shown as role models for other women after their death.
The attacks against the civilians, especially the Kurdish citizens who refused to cooperate with them were also reported at the same years. On 20 Januarya report published by HRWstated that the PKK was reported to have been responsible for more than executions.
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The organization had also reportedly committed 25 massacres, killing more than people. More than a hundred victims were children and women. It partially relaxed the bans on broadcasting and publishing in the Kurdish languagealthough significant barriers remain. Later that year, the US Treasury moved to freeze assets of branches of the organization. On 20 Marchthe PKK announced the establishment of Peoples' United Revolutionary Movement, a coalition of MaoistsMarxists-LeninistsApoists, Communists and Hoxhaists which aim to attain "democracy and a free future" for "peoples against Imperialism, Capitalism, Chauvinism, Fascism and Racism", by working towards the overthrow of the ruling AKP governmentwho they deem collaborative fascist.
Its aims and objectives have evolved over time towards the goal of national autonomy,  and democratic confederalism. Aroun the PKK ostensibly changed its aim from independence to a demand for equal rights and Kurdish autonomy within the Turkish state,    though all the while hardly suspending their military attacks on the Turkish state except for ceasefires in - and - What we are calling for very openly is a state model where a people's basic economic, cultural, social, and political rights are guaranteed".
Whilst this shift in the mid-nineties has been interpreted as one from a call for independence to an autonomous republic,  some scholars have concluded that the PKK still maintains independence as the ultimate goal, but through society-building rather than state-building. The organization has adapted the new Democratic confederalist views of its arrested leader, which aim to replace the United NationsCapitalism and Nation State with the Democratic Confederalism which is described as a system of popularly elected administrative councils, allowing local communities to exercise autonomous control over their assets while linking to other communities via a network of confederal councils.
The organization appointed "Doctor Bahoz," the nom de guerre of Fehman Huseyina Syrian Kur in charge of the movement's military operations signifying the long-standing solidarity among Kurds from all parts of Kurdistan. The first training camps were established in in Turkey, Iraq, Syria, Iran and also in Beqaa Valley with the support of the Syrian government. Instead of a single training camp that could be easily destroyed, the organization created many small camps.
During this period the organization set up a fully functioning enclave with training camps, storage facilities, and reconnaissance and communications centers. Inthe organization was reported to have camps strung out through the mountains that straddle the border between Turkey and Iraq, including in Sinaht, Haftanin, Kanimasi and Zap. The mountain camps, located in Turkey, Iraq and Iran, are used as forward bases from which militants carry out attacks against Turkish military bases.
The units deployed there are highly mobile and the camps have only minimal infrastructure. It was reported in that there was another political training camp in Belgium, evidence that the organization had used training camps in Europe for political and ideological training.
Its activities spread over Kurdish community centers in France, Germany and the Netherlands. Koma Berxwedans songs, which often were about the PKK resistance, were forbidden in Turkey and had to be smuggled over the border.
The organization had sympathizer parties in the Grand National Assembly of Turkey beginning in the early s. The establishment of direct links to the organization has been a question. Political organizations established in Turkey are banned from propagating or supporting separatism. Several political parties supporting Kurdish rights have been reportedly banned on this pretext.
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In the DTP-party was prosecuted by the constitutional court. Several parliamentarians and other elected representatives have been jailed for speaking in Kurdish, carrying Kurdish colors or otherwise allegedly "promoting separatism", most famous among them being Leyla Zana. Between and Turkey was condemned to pay 33 million euros in damages in cases. The majority of the cases were related to events that took place in southeastern Anatolia Politicians of the HDP are often criticized and prosecuted for being members of the PKK.
During the controversial Ergenekon trials in Turkey, allegations have been made that the PKK is linked to elements of the Turkish intelligence community. Some were persuaded or coerced to play an active role in the conflict, particularly under the direction of the Turkish Gendarmerie 's unofficial JITEM unit.
During its establishment in the mids, amid violent clashes country-widethe organization used classic violent methods, such as the reported failed assassination of Mehmet Celal Bucak as a propaganda-of-the-deed. AfterPKK began also to use the Maoist theory of people's war. The PKK has faced condemnation by some countries for executing civilians, using suicide bombersChild Soldiers and involvement in drug trafficking. In the first phase -the PKK tried to gain the support of the Kurdish population.
It attacked the machinery of government and distributed propaganda in the region. PKK tactics were based on ambushsabotageriots, protests, and demonstrations against the Turkish government. Turkish newspapers said that the PKK effectively used the prison force to gain appeal among the population which PKK has denied.
During this time, the organization said that its violent actions against the government forces were used by "the need to defend Kurds in the context of what it calls as the massive cultural suppression of Kurdish identity including the Turkish Language Act Ban and cultural rights carried out by other governments of the region".
In the second phase -which followed the return of civilian rule inescalating attacks were made on the government's military and vital institutions all over the country.
The objective was to destabilize the Turkish authority through a long, low-intensity confrontation. Widespread sabotages were continued from the first stage. Turkish sources had also stated that the PKK carried out kidnappings of tourists, primarily in Istanbulbut also at different resorts.
However, the PKK had in its history arrested 4 tourists and released them all after warning them to not enter the war zone. The vast majority of PKK's actions have taken place mainly in Turkey against the Turkish military, although it has on occasions co-operated with other Kurdish nationalist paramilitary groups in neighboring states, such as Iraq and Iran.
In effect, the Turkish state has led a series of counter-insurgency operations against the PKK, accompanied by political measures, starting with an explicit denunciation of separatism in the Constitutionand including proclamation of the state of emergency in various PKK-controlled territories starting in when the military relinquished political control to the civilians.
At an other press conference which took place on the 16 April in Bar EliasLebanonthe ceasefire was prolonged indefinitely. The government elected in December did not initiate negotiations and kept on evacuating Kurdish populated villages.
Despite the violent approach of the Government to the ceae fire, it was upheld by the PKK until August The ECHR has condemned Turkey for executions of Kurdish civilians, torturing, forced displacements and massive arrests. In the late s and early s, in an effort to win increased support from the Kurdish peasantry, the PKK altered its leftist secular ideology to better accommodate and accept Islamic beliefs.
The group also abandoned its previous strategy of attacking Kurdish and Turkish civilians who were against them, focusing instead on government and military targets. Similar actions of the Turkish state have also been criticized by these same groups.
The organization made radical changes to survive, such as changing its ideology and setting new goals. The stated purpose of the organizational change was to leave behind nationalistic and state-building goals, in favor of creating a political structure to work within the existing nation-states. Kongra-Gel called off the cease-fire at the start of Junesaying Turkish security forces had refused to respect the truce.
Turkish security forces were increasingly involved in clashes with Kurdish separatist fighters. Ankara stated that about 2, Kurdish fighters had crossed into Turkey from hideouts in mountainous northern Iraq in early June While the fight against the Turkish security forces between and continued, the PKK and its ancillary organizations continued to enjoy substantial support among the Kurds of Turkey.
There were bombings and attempted bombings in resort areas in western Turkey and Istanbul, some of which resulted in civilian casualties. On 1 Octoberthe PKK reportedly declared a unilateral cease-fire that slowed the intensity and pace of its attacks, but attacks continued in response to Turkish security forces significant counterinsurgency operations, especially in the southeast. On 13 Aprilthe PKK declared again a unilateral cease fire after the DTP won 99 municipalities and negotiations were spoken about.
At least individuals lost their lives as a result of the clashes including militants and soldiers. In contrast, individuals lost their lives in until the Turkish government initiated negotiations with the PKK leadership. Our forces will use their right to retaliate in the event of an attack, operation or bombing against our withdrawing guerrilla forces and the withdrawal will immediately stop.
Many people here are afraid that once the guerrillas are gone, the Turkish military will crack down on us again. The withdrawal began as planned with groups of fighters crossing the border from southeastern Turkey to northern Iraq. PKK spokesman Ahmet Deniz sought to ease concerns stating the plan would boost democracy. It is estimated that between 1, and 2, PKK fighters resided in Turkey at the time. They carried with them Kalashnikov assault rifles, light machine guns and rocket-propelled grenade launchers before a welcoming ceremony.
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On 29 Julythe PKK issued an ultimatum in saying that the peace deal would fail if reforms were not begun to be implemented within a month. He also criticized Turkey of waging a proxy war against Kurds during the Syrian Civil War by supporting other extremist rebels who were fighting them. Iraqi Kurdistan President Masoud Barzani backed the initiative saying, alongside Erdogan: "This is a historic visit for me We all know it would have been impossible to speak here 15 or 20 years ago.
Prime Minister Tayyip Erdogan has taken a very brave step towards peace. I want my Kurdish and Turkish brothers to support the peace process. A number of Turkish Kurds rallied in large-scale street protests, demanding that the government in Ankara take more forceful action to combat IS and to enable Kurdish militants already engaged against IS to more freely move and resupply. These protests included a PKK call for its supporters to turn out. The Turkish government continued to restrict PKK-associated fighters' movement across its borders, arresting People's Protection Units fighters who were moving back into Turkey.
Turkish military statements stated that the bombings were in response to PKK attacks on a Turkish military outpost in the area. The Firat news agency, which Al Jazeera describes as "close to the PKK", stated that Turkish forces had been shelling the PKK positions for days beforehand and that the PKK action had itself been retaliation for those artillery strikes.
While they were doing so, they decided to bomb PKK targets in Iraq.
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The number of casualties since 23 July was stated by Turkish government to be Turkish officers and over 2, Kurdish rebels killed by September. The areas in which the group operates are generally mountainous rural areas and dense urban areas. The mountainous terrain offers an advantage to members of the PKK by allowing them to hide in a network of caves. Since its foundation, the PKK has recruited new fighters mainly from Turkey, but also from Syria, Iraq, Iran, and Western countries using various recruitment methods, such as using nationalist propaganda and its gender equality ideology.
At its establishment, it included a small number of female fighters but over time the number increased significantly and by the early s, 30 percent of its 17, armed fighting forces were women. In its early stages, the PKK recruited young women by kidnapping them. This forced families whose children were already a member of the organization to cooperate and thus turning them into accomplices, which increased the number of women joining the group, according to the publication, published by the Jamestown Foundation.
The organization is also actively recruiting child soldiers and it has been criticized of abducting more than 2, children by Turkish Security Forces. - doursim.com reports by the Human Rights Watch HRWthe United Nations UN and the Amnesty International have confirmed the recruitment and use of child soldiers by the organization and its armed wings since the s.
The organization is also reported to have used the children in the drug trade. The report stated that more than 29 cases had been documented, and some recruited children were under 15 when they had been recruited, which is a war crime under international law. In Julythe weapons captured between and from the PKK operatives and their origins published by the Turkish General Staff indicates that the operatives erased some of the serial numbers from their weapons.
The total number of weapons and the origins for traceable ones were:. Turkish authorities stated that four members of the organization, who handed themselves over to authorities after escaping from camps in northern Iraq, said they had seen two U.
The probe of organization's weapons and the investigation of Blackwater employees were connected. Parties and concerts are organized by branch groups. There are also indications that the organization is actively involving in money laundering, illicit drugs and human trafficking, as well as illegal immigration inside and outside the EU for funding and running its activities. PKK's involvement in drug trafficking has been documented since the s.
Department of the Treasury. S Department of Treasury designation, there was "no evidence that the organizational structures of the PKK are directly involved in drug trafficking". On 14 Octoberthe U. Pursuant to the Kingpin Act, the designation freezes any assets the designees may have under U. According to research conducted by journalist Aliza Marcus, the PKK accepted the support of smugglers in the region.
Syria: Kurdish women soldiers against jihadists - Global 3000
Aliza Marcus stated that some of those Kurdish smugglers who were involved in the drug trade, either because they truly believed in the PKK-or because they thought it a good business practice avoid conflicts -frequently donated money to the PKK rebels. She also stated that there were reports of PKK supporters in Europe who used their positions and contacts to trade in drugs-and then handed some of the profits to the PKK.
And when PKK activists needed more money, they had no qualms about approaching Kurds who trafficked in narcotics.
However, according to Aliza Marcus, it does not seem that the PKK, as an organization, directly produced or traded in narcotics. The EUROPOL which has monitored the organization's activities inside the EU has also claimed the organization's involvement in the trafficking of drugs and human beings to raise funds for its terrorist activities inside and outside the EU.
On 1 Januarythe U. The OFAC stated that the drug trafficking is still one of the organization's criminal activities it uses to obtain weapons and materials. Inaccording to information provided by the Intelligence Resource Program of the Federation of American Scientists the strength of the organization in terms of human resources consists of approximately 4, to 5, militants of whom 3, to 3, are located in northern Iraq.
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At the height of its campaign, the organization received support from many countries. The PKK has been placed on Turkey's terrorist list, as well as a number of allied governments and organizations. First designated as a terror organization by the European Union inthe PKK was ordered to be removed from the EU terror list on 3 April by the European Court of First Instance on the grounds that the EU had failed to give a proper justification for listing it in the first place.
France prosecutes Kurdish-French activists and bans organizations connected to the PKK on terrorism-related charges, having listed the group as a terrorist organization since The following other countries and organizations have listed or otherwise labelled the PKK in an official capacity as a terrorist organization:.
Following this, the Belgian Government announced that the ruling would not affect the current designation of the PKK as a terrorist organization. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Kurdish armed organization.
Kurdistan Workers' Party. Main article: History of the Kurdistan Workers' Party. Some of this article's listed sources may not be reliable. Please help this article by looking for better, more reliable sources. Unreliable citations may be challenged or deleted.
November Learn how and when to remove this template message. See also: Ergenekon trials. Main article: Kurdish-Turkish peace process. Main article: Kurdish riots in Turkey. Main article: Kurdish-Turkish conflict -present. Flag of the PKK Flag of the PKK -present. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved 7 September Federal Criminal Office. Jacobin Magazine. Retrieved 6 September Retrieved 6 February Retrieved 11 April Costa Mesa, California: Mazda Publications Retrieved 30 July BBC News.
Retrieved 1 September Archived from the original on 22 February Retrieved 5 February Archived from the original on 30 December Retrieved 14 August - doursim.com. Retrieved 1 August Retrieved 8 September - doursim.com. Retrieved 25 June Archived from the original on 26 June Archived from the original on 27 October Retrieved 22 May Archived from the original on 14 April Retrieved 2 July European Journal of Turkish Studies.
Social Sciences on Contemporary Turkey Archived from the original on 16 February Understanding Turkey's Kurdish Question. Lexington Books. Autonomy, sovereignty, and self-determination: the accommodation of conflicting rights Rev.
Philadelphia: Univ. Retrieved 16 December Nation Building in Turkey and Morocco. Cambridge University Press. Turkey and the European Union internal dynamics and external challenges. Basingstoke [England]: Palgrave Macmillan. Lust, Ellen ed. The Middle East. CQ Press. Foreign Policy. Retrieved 1 January Firat News Agency.
Archived from the original on 14 March Retrieved 10 May Retrieved 16 October Radio France Internationale. Retrieved 18 December Archived from the original on 6 April Retrieved 21 November Retrieved 27 December Contemporary Turkish foreign policy 1. Westport, Conn. Retrieved 10 January NYU Press. Archived from the original on 30 September Retrieved 17 April Retrieved 17 July Human Rights Watch.
Random House. Retrieved 27 December - via Google Books. Council on Foreign Relations. Bianet - Bagimsiz Iletisim Agi. Retrieved 29 December Turkey".
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