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Cross reference articles published on the YesteryearsTools web site that relate to this article;. Collins Company Pt. The Collins Co. They also produced goods that were specifically labeled with distributor names and brand names that belonged to specific distributors. Some identifying marks and labels included a reference to Collins while others did not. The sections identified with red titles address some of the trademarks, trade names and brands associated with Collins but it should be understood that there were many others.

These hatchets are now called "advertising" hatchets. More often than not such hatchets had nothing to do with a hardware company or tool distributor. They were a buying incentive or an enticement to spend a certain amount of money and then the purchaser would receive a hatchet.

The hatchets and axes involved were good quality and even some of them also included the manufacturer's mark on the reverse side. Although not always specifically marked, indications are that Plumb was the company that manufactured most advertising hatchets.

At least four companies providing such hatchets were major shoe distributors. Scores of hardware concerns sold hatchets with their company logo etched into the head. It may be that some concerns provided promotional hatchets or axes bearing special markings like the one depicted. It may also be that Plumb manufactured a preponderance of such hatchets but most were not identified with the maker.

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Louis, MO. A number of shoe manufacturers offered hatchets with their logo etched on the face. Red Goose Shoes had an etched hatchet and one with a decal.

Perhaps no tools are more closely linked to the founding of America than the axe and its smaller sibling, the hatchet. Hand-forged axes of cast iron with heads weighing seven pounds were swung by pioneers and Colonists, who used the versatile tool to clear land for crops and build their homes. A hand axe (or handaxe) is a prehistoric stone tool with two faces that is the longest-used tool in human doursim.com is usually made from flint or doursim.com is characteristic of the lower Acheulean and middle Palaeolithic doursim.com technical name (biface) comes from the fact that the archetypical model is generally bifacial Lithic flake and almond-shaped (amygdaloidal). Explore Axe's universe of men's grooming products, discover new cultures, and polish your style with our style tips & hacks.

Robin Hood Shoes used two variations, Buster Brown had at least five, one of which was only fancy lettering. Some etched hatchets appear to be examples that were used primarily as advertisements or were possibly promotional in nature while. Others suggest that they were commissioned by a company as a commemorative gift for an individual; perhaps someone who was retiring.

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Note the words. Like many other major manufacturers, the marketing schemes used by Plumb were repeatedly being ated. Some markings associated with the company when Fayette R. Many new brands were added and readily became associated with the company. Others were used for goods sold to wholesalers. In many cases the label and mark appeared on the same face. As additional information becomes available even more markings used by Plumb are being discovered, especially those used outside of the US.

Many of the Plumb brands and markings were either registered,trademarked or copyrighted but apparently there are others that were not. A booklet on Plumb and Other Philadelphia Makers is now available. Please refer to the Home Page for details.

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The booklet has more information than on this website. Yerkes also made other forged tools and those lines of goods were continued after Fayette R. Plumb became involved.

Indications are that Plumb added hatchets prior to adding axes to the line and those lines have withstood the effects of time. Plumb also added files to their production capabilities but they are considerably less known about than the other lines.

The company continued to make hammers and hatchets after they were purchased by others and although axes were continued for quite some time, it appears that the mainstay of the Plumb brand still remains with hammers and hatchets.

However unlike the earlier production, it appears that the Plumb tools made today are all made overseas primarily by Asian manufacturers. Like many axe manufacturers, Fayette R. In the late s Plumb was furnishing tools not only throughout what is now the continental United States but also to Canada, South America, Australia, Germany and the west coast of Africa.

Indications are that those territories subsequently were expanded to include other areas considered as parts of the Pacific Rim. The most common tools supplied included axes along with picks, mattocks and grub hoes. In many cases Plumb supplied axes that were simplified.

That is to say they were somewhat different from the axes manufactured for the North American trade.

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Such axes did not include as many elaborate etchings and the finishes were not always as refined as the finishes on axes sold in North America.

But that was not always the case. In some situations the patterns varied to suit the preferences of the area to which the axes had been exported. Common variations involved the overall shape and preferred weights.

This practice appears to have been most prevalent in regard to some axes manufactured for the Australian market. There were situations where companies completely excluded any references or markings that would indicate who the actual maker was.

In some cases it was to protect reputations or eliminate warranties. In others it was to increase sales. The eye differences were quite obvious because the shape was round or a broad oval. They were not like the elongated narrow axe eyes common to axes used throughout North America. They were more like the eyes used in sledge hammers and picks. This is not to say that other North American, and even English and some European manufacturers did not export axe heads with elongated eyes.

They certainly did but in many cases they provided less expensive axes to areas where obtaining a replacement handle or even the original handle was required to be furnished by the user. Many such handles were fashioned by hand and a round or oval handle was far quicker to shape. Indications are that some axes that Plumb exported to Australia and New Zealand became know by a name that included the color used to accentuate the stampings or even paint the entire head.

In addition to the coloring of the stampings there were small symbols that were often also stamped into the lower part of the cheek. Those too may also have been originally colored the same as the name stamping but like most axes used for an extended period of time or left to the elements, those color markings soon disappeared.

This was based on the color of the head when it was sold. Some included stampings or touch marks in the shape of the designs depicted below. That reference system may have evolved from the choppers and other people that used the axes and probably not the company itself.

At this point no relationship has been determined between the touch marks and the colors. Marking and labels used on hatchets made by Plumb and under the Plumb name after the company changed hands. Symbols reported to have been used on Plumb axes sold in Australia.

Another possibility is that the symbol represented a time frame or possibly a specific distributor. No complete clarification has yet to be determined. The Star and the Diamond have ben observed on axes made by other companies. An Australian supplier?

An alias used by Plumb? Two slightly different labels with similar markings. What animal is depicted?

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The black and white label was observed in the company label catalog, the red and gold label was observed on an axe exported to Australia. Markings used on some export axes and some axes used in the southwest. Etched markings used on some axes used in southwest USA and Mexico. Research indicates that more than one system of weights and measures existed in Australia up until the mid s. The fact that the Australians were using more than one system of weights and measures up until the beginnings of WWII and perhaps as late as may help to explain why Plumb chose to use a symbolic marking system.

This was especially true in the early twentieth century and especially for exported axes. No doubt many axes so marked were never exported which helps explain why they are found stateside.

In many areas technological developments in Australia took considerably more time. Facsimile of a labels used on handles prior to the introduction of Permabond. The representations are of early racing axes manufactured for use in competitive chopping events in Australia.

Axes made by the Plumb Co. Various sources of information indicate that Plumb was one of the three earliest major North American axe manufacturers that exported axes to Australia. As a point of clarification it should be understood that the name of the company is expressed in a number of forms.

A problem originated from monetary difficulties and it was necessary to restructure the company under the name Collins Manufacturing Co. When they took over they discovered the name Collins Manufacturing Co.

Samuel remained as the superintendent of the works during the years between and after which he and his brother regained control over the company with the reorganized name becoming The Collins Company. The company technically remained The Collins Co. Machetes and Bowie Knives also accounted for a significant amount of Collins production.

Collins made a wide variety of such edge tools between and Not only were machetes a primary harvesting tool used throughout the world, they became widely used as weapons. The popularity and superior reputation of Collins edge tools, especially axes, led to a number of competitors engaging in deceptive practices.

Deceptive markings applied by impostors appeared on axes as early as The misrepresented markings were used on and off until at least the first quarter of the twentieth century.

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They were used by at least three companies right in the United States that didn't even have such a person associated with their respective concern. One company was near Philadelphia. The other company was in Humphreysville, Connecticut.

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Indications are that The Collins Company publicly warned off the domestic transgressors and for a while the problem was under control. Apparently the problem continued. A statement in the Collins Company catalog solicited information about such frauds and indicated that the information would be held in the strictest confidence. In addition to those who misrepresented themselves by using the name Collins on axes there was at least one legitimate maker who used the name Collins.

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AXES. One of the earliest known recoveries of a ground stone axe was from the Modoc Rock Shelter in southern Illinois.A full-groove axe was recovered from the foot level that measured six inches in length and dated to about 7, years doursim.com full groove axe is the earliest axe doursim.com the three-quarter-groove axe was developed, followed still later by the half-grooved form. There is.

Collins are His father was Stephen Collins originally from Hartford, Connecticut. Stephen Collins is reported to have been a ship's captain with his roots in Hartford. Collins who also originated in Hartford. Confirmation of any relationship has yet to be verified. Examples of variations of the Crown, Arm and Hammer marking.

The more simplified version on the right was used on some axes in the s through the s. There were other modified designs that appeared on other goods especially edge tools that were exported. These representations are of some designs that appeared as part of the trademark on some registration papers. Around the middle of the nineteenth century the problem became untenable as far as The Collins Co. It seems the inferior quality of the counterfeit axes was impacting on the Collins reputation.

Some were actually duplicating the markings exactly as Collins was marking their goods. The guilty parties were then exporting the goods, so marked, to various markets around the world.

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Quite possibly because of the expense of suiting all the businesses and individuals engaged in the illegal practice, Collins initiated a suit against a major perpetrator.

The matter was heard by a Vice Chancellor who found in favor of Collins. It is understood that the judgement involved forfeiture of all profits from the illegally marked goods along with the destruction of any remaining goods so marked and that any and all improper labels and marking devices also be destroyed.

Based on the judgement apparently Collins decided to hold off on suiting the remaining counterfeiters with the provision they cease the illegal practices.

That seemed to have worked in England and thereby saved The Collins Co. Reports have indicated that a similar practice was undertaken some years later by some German manufacturers but their efforts were squelched upon the threat of vigorous legal actions in the German courts.

Despite their legal efforts and the repeated judgments in their favor Collins discovered that apparently the problem continued to a lesser degree.

Oct 18,   Re: Need help in dating early axe head I dont think you can know the age with no marks on it as these are still made and sold today. At around 4" it is a broad hatchet, broad axes . Like many axe manufacturers, Fayette R. Plumb, or PLUMB as the company was commonly referred to, marketed axes in many parts of the world. In the late s Plumb was furnishing tools not only throughout what is now the continental United States but also to Canada, South America, Australia, Germany and the west coast of Africa. Fire axes were supplied by numerous axe manufacturers as well as many hardware distributors and fire equipment providers. Most fire axes varied somewhat in shape from those made by other makers but for the end purchaser distinguishing between one make and another was difficult. The majority of fire axes were painted red and Collins chose to use.

A statement in The Collins Company catalog solicited information about such frauds and indicated that the information would be held in the strictest confidence. The specific appearance of the markings are believed to have been stampings that looked very much like, if not identical to, the actual Collins Co. Apparently there were no labels involved in the marking of the counterfeit Collins axes. As a result of their experiences with counterfeiters and the like, in The Collins Co.

The mark was registered in It consisted of an image of a crown with an arms holding a hammer located above the top of the crown. It is interesting to note that the word Legitimus was not common in most dictionaries of the day or even those dated later for that matter.

It is basically a Latin word that when translated can be interpreted as:. The word Legitimus was used not only on labels and as stampings on various goods that Collins made, it also commonly appeared in published advertisements, on signs, company stationery and in product catalogs in a number of languages.

The symbol was even chosen for the castings that were made as snow-catchers that were installed on the company office building in Collinsville. Quite possibly the most common place that the symbol was used was on labels; labels for the American market as well as numerous export markets.

Many of the original labels depicting the Legitimus symbol were embossed, a reference to which was even included along the edge of some labels along with the a notation that the label was genuine only if embossed and had been printed by the New York Bank Note Printing Co. Embossing is a process utilized in printing whereas certain areas are raised above the normal surface of the paper.

This is accomplished by adding padding under the areas that will be raised and printing on paper that has been temporarily treated to stretch.

The earliest trademark reference found, Registration No. Over the years the combination of the arm, crown and hammer appears to have become the symbol most recognized as being associated with The Collins Company. The symbol, along with substantially the same wording used in the description, was again registered as No.

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That registration was issued on Nov. Republication was dated Aug. The markings were stamped, etched and or printed on labels. Other variations appeared in advertisements and on company stationary.

The end result was recognition conveyed by a number of variations, many of which used individually while still others were adapted to be used in conjunction with other brands. Although the crown, arm and hammer with or without with the word Legitimus was introduced five decades after Collins edge tools started to be made it appears that it became the most recognized and acceptable of the Collins markings. Typical banner as used on labels and in advertisements printed in English.

Examples of markings attributed to. Rufus S. Of the millions of known pieces, few have been thoroughly studied. Another arises from the clear evidence that the same tasks were performed more effectively using utensils made from flakes:. This raises the question: why make hand axes, whose production is more complicated and costly, if the flakes can do the same work with the same efficiency?

The answer could be that, in general, hand axes were not conceived for a particular function excluding certain specialized types [ Keeley based his observations on archaeological sites in England.

He proposed that in base settlements where it was possible to predict future actions and where greater control on routine activities was common, the preferred tools were made from specialized flakes, such as racloirsbacked knives, scrapers and punches.

However, hand axes were more suitable on expeditions and in seasonal camps, where unforeseen tasks were more common. Their main advantage in these situations was the lack of specialization and adaptability to multiple eventualities. A hand axe has a long blade with different curves and angles, some sharper and others more resistant, including points and notches. All of this is combined in one tool. Given the right circumstances, it is possible to make use of loose flakes.

He identified that the point of another hand axe had been used as a clockwise drill. This hand axe came from Clacton-on-Sea all of these sites are located in the east of England. Toth reached similar conclusions for pieces from the Spanish site in Ambrona Soria. Some hand axes were used with force that left clearly visible marks. Other visible marks can be left as the scars from retouching, on occasion it is possible to distinguish them from marks left by the initial manufacture.

One of the most common cases is when a point breaks. This was seen at sites in Europe, Africa and Asia. One example comes from the El Basalito site in Salamancawhere excavation uncovered fragments of a hand axe with marks at the tip that appeared to be the result of the action of a wedge, which would have subjected the object to high levels of torsion that broke the tip.

Such wear was reworked by means of a secondary working as discussed above. In some cases this reconstruction is easily identifiable and was carried out using techniques such as the coup de tranchet French, meaning " tranchet blow"or simply with scale or scalariform retouches that alter an edge's symmetry and line. The most characteristic and common shape is a pointed area at one end, cutting edges along its side and a rounded base this includes hand axes with a lanceolate and amygdaloidal shape as well as others from the family.

Hand axes display a variety of shapes, including circular, triangular and elliptical-calling in to question the contention that they had a constant and only symbolic significance. They were typically made from a rounded stonea block or lithic flakeusing a hammer to remove flakes from both sides of the item.

This hammer can be made of hard stone, or of wood or antler. The latter two, softer hammers can produce more delicate results. However, a hand axe's technological ct can reflect more differences.

For example, uniface tools have only been worked on one side and partial bifaces retain a high proportion of the natural cortex of the tool stoneoften making them easy to confuse with chopping tools. Further, simple bifaces may have been created from a suitable tool stone, but they rarely show evidence of retouching.

In summary, hand axes are recognized by many typological schools under different archaeological paradigms and are quite recognisable at least the most typical examples. However, they have not been definitively categorized. Stated more formally, the idealised model combines a series of well-defined propertiesbut no set of these properties are necessary or sufficient to identify a hand axe.

The study of hand axes is made complicated because its shape is the result of a complicated chain of technical actions that are only occasionally revealed in their later stages. If this complexity of intentions during the manufacture of a hand axe is added to its variety of forms [ The oldest known Oldowan tools were found in Gona, Ethiopia.

These are dated to about 2. Early examples of hand axes date back to 1. The earliest Acheulean sites in Europe appear around 0. In addition, the Acheulean tradition did not spread to Eastern Asia. The apogee of hand axe manufacture took place in a wide area of the Old Worl especially during the Riss glaciationin a cultural complex that can be described as cosmopolitan and which is known as the Acheulean.

The use of hand axes survived the Middle Palaeolithic in a much smaller area and were especially important during the Mousterianup to the middle of the Last glacial period. Movius designated a border the so-called Movius Line between the cultures that used hand axes to the west and those that made chopping tools and small retouched lithic flakessuch as were made by Peking man and the Ordos culture in China, or their equivalents in Indochina such as the Hoabinhian.

The Padjitanian culture from Java was traditionally thought to be the only oriental culture to manufacture hand axes. In North America, hand axes make up one of the dominant tool industries, starting from the terminal Pleistocene and continuing throughout the Holocene.

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For example, the Folsom point and Clovis point traditions collectively known as the fluted points are associated with Paleo Indianssome of the first people to colonize the new world. Hand axe technology is almost unknown in Australian prehistory.

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Experiments in knapping have demonstrated the relative ease with which a hand axe can be made, [39] which could help explain their success. In addition, they demand relatively little maintenance and allow a choice of raw materials-any rock will suffice that supports a conchoidal fracture.

It is easy to improvise their manufacture and correct mistakes without requiring detailed planning. No long or demanding apprenticeship is necessary to learn the necessary techniques. These factors combine to allow these objects to remain in use throughout pre-history. Their adaptability makes them effective in a variety of tasks, from heavy duty such as digging in soil, felling trees or breaking bones to delicate such as cutting ligaments, slicing meat or perforating a variety of materials.

Lastly, a hand axe represents a prototype that can be refined giving rise to more developed, specialised and sophisticated tools such as the tips of various projectiles, knives, adzes and hatchets. Given the typological difficulties in defining the essence of a hand axe, it is important when analysing them to take account of their archaeological context geographical locationstratigraphythe presence of other elements associated with the same levelchronology etc.

The raw material is an important factor, because of the result that can be obtained by working it and in order to reveal the economy and movement of prehistoric humans. In the Olduvai Gorge the raw materials were most readily available some ten kilometres from the nearest settlements. However, flint or silicate is readily available on the fluvial terraces of Western Europe.

This means that different strategies were required for the procurement and use of available resources. In order to study the use of individual items it is necessary to look for traces of wear such as pseudo-retouches, breakage or wear, including areas that are polished. If the item is in a good condition it is possible to submit it to use-wear analysiswhich is discussed in more detail below.

Apart from these generalities, which are common to all carved archaeological pieces, hand axes need a technical analysis of their manufacture and a morphological analysis. The chain is highly flexible, as a toolmaker may focus narrowly on just one of the sequence's links or equally on each link. The links examined in this type of study start with the extraction methods of the raw material, then include the actual manufacture of the item, its use, maintenance throughout its working life, and finally its disposal.

A toolmaker may put a lot of effort into finding the highest quality raw material or the most suitable tool stone. In this way more effort is invested in obtaining a good foundation, but time is saved on shaping the stone: that is, the effort is focused on the start of the operational chain.

Equally the artisan may concentrate the most effort in the manufacture so that the quality or suitability of the raw material is less important. This will minimize the initial effort, but will result in a greater effort at the end of the operational chain. Hand axes are most commonly made from rounded pebbles or nodules, but many are also made from a large flake. Hand axes made from flakes first appeared at the start of the Acheulean period and became more common with time.

Manufacturing a hand axe from a flake is actually easier than from a pebble. It is also quicker, as flakes are more likely to be closer to the desired shape. This allows easier manipulation and fewer knaps are required to finish the tool; it is also easier to obtain straight edges. When analysing a hand axe made from a flake, it should be remembered that its shape was predetermined by use of the Levallois technique or Kombewa technique or similar.

Notwithstanding this, it is necessary to note a tool's characteristics: type of flake, heel, knap direction. The natural external cortex or rind of the tool stone, which is due to erosion and the physical-chemical alterations of weatheringis different from the stone's interior. In the case of chertquartz or quartzitethis alteration is basically mechanical, and apart from the colour and the wear it has the same characteristics as the interior in terms of hardnesstoughness etc.

However, flint is surrounded by a limestone cortex that is soft and unsuitable for stone tools. As hand axes are made from a tool stone's core, it is normal to indicate the thickness and position of the cortex in order to better understand the techniques that are required in their manufacture. The variation in cortex between utensils should not be taken as an indication of their age.

Many partially-worked hand axes do not require further work in order to be effective tools. They can be considered to be simple hand axes. Less suitable tool stone requires more thorough working. In some specimens the cortex is unrecognisable due to the complete working that it has undergone, which has eliminated any vestige of the original cortex.

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Older hand axes were produced by direct percussion with a stone hammer and can be distinguished by their thickness and a sinuous border. Mousterian hand axes were produced with a soft billet of antler or wood and are much thinner, more symmetrical and have a straight border. An experienced flintknapper needs less than 15 minutes to produce a good quality hand axe. A simple hand axe can be made from a beach pebble in less than 3 minutes.

The manufacturing process employs lithic reduction. This phase is commonly thought of as the most important in hand axe fabrication, although it is not always used, such as for hand axes made from flakes or a suitable tool stone. An important concern is the implement that has been used to form the biface.

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If multiple implements were used, it is essential to discover in what order they were used and the result obtained by each one. The most common implements are: [6]. Hand axes can be made without subsequent reworking of the edges.

The resulting artefact is usually easily recognizable given its size and irregular edges, as the removed flakes leave pronounced percussion bulbs and compression rings. The shape is similar to that of the core as the irregularities formed during knapping are not removed. The notches obtained were exploited in the production sequence. It is common that this type of manufacture yields " partial bifaces " an incomplete working that leaves many areas covered with cortex"unifaces" tools that have only been worked on one face" bifaces in the Abbevillian style " and " nucleiform bifaces ".

This type of manufacturing style is generally an indication of the age when a tool was made and with other archaeological data can provide a context that allows its age to be estimated.

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These hand axes have a more balanced appearance as the modification consists of a second or third series of blows to make the piece more uniform and provide a better finish. The modification is often called retouching [47] and is sometimes carried out using invasive retouching or using softer, marginal, shallow blows that are only applied to the most marked irregularities leaving scale-like marks.

The modification of edges with a hard hammer was carried out from the beginning of the Acheulean and persisted into the Musterian. It is therefore not useful as an indicator of chronology in order for it to be considered as a marker it has to be accompanied by other complementary and independent archaeological data. The hand axes arising from this methodology have a more classical profile with either a more symmetrical almond or oval shape and with a lower proportion of the cortex of the original core.

It is not always the case that the retouching had the objective of reducing an edge's irregularities or deformities. In fact, it has been shown that in some cases the retouching was carried out to sharpen an edge that had been blunted by use or a point that had deteriorated. Some hand axes were formed with a hard hammer and finished with a soft hammer. Blows that result in deep conchoidal fractures the first phase of manufacture can be distinguished from features resulting from sharpening with a soft hammer.

The latter leaves shallower, more distended, broader scars, sometimes with small, multiple shock waves. However, marks left by a small, hard hammer can leave similar marks to a soft hammer.

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Soft hammer finished pieces are usually balanced and symmetrical, and can be relatively smooth. Soft hammer works first appeared in the Acheulean period, allowing tools with these markings to be used as a post quem estimation, but with no greater precision. The main advantage of a soft hammer is that a flintknapper is able to remove broader, thinner flakes with barely developed heels, which allows a cutting edge to be maintained or even improved with minimal raw material wastage.

However, a high-quality raw material is required to make their use effective. No studies compare the two methods in terms of yield per unit weight of raw material, or the difference in energy use. The use of a soft hammer requires greater use of force by the flintknapper and a steeper learning curvealthough it offers more flakes for less raw material.

"The more simplified version on the right was used on some axes in the s through the s". I think this may be the case for your axe. As I've stated before, I'm by no means an expert on Collins axes, so I could be wrong about that. Jun 15,   Axe Head Dating - Kelly Axes Discussion in 'Axe, Tomahawk, & Hatchet Forum' started by HandyMoose, Jun 14, Paid Subscribers don't see ads! Jun 14, #1. HandyMoose. 4. Jun 14, Just recently came across this forum while trying to date some axes I . Note for Metal Detectorists and Collectors: Discuss plans for detecting finds before your detect. On private hunts, leave all finds and copies of your notes at the property, including GPS coordinates, depth, photographs, etc. in case it can assist future Archaeological work.

Hand axes made using only a soft hammer are much less common. A soft hammer is not suitable for all types of percussion platform and it cannot be used on certain types of raw material. It is, therefore, necessary to start with a hard hammer or with a flake as a core as its edge will be fragile flat, smooth pebbles are also useful. This means that although it was possible to manufacture a hand axe using a soft hammer, it is reasonable to suppose that a hard hammer was used to prepare a blank followed by one or more phases of retouching to finish the piece.

However, the degree of separation between the phases is not certain, as the work could have been carried out in one operation. Working with a soft hammer allows a knapper greater control of the knapping and reduces waste of the raw material, allowing the production of longer, sharper, more uniform edges that will increase the tool's working life. Hand axes made with a soft hammer are usually more symmetrical and smooth, with rectilinear edges and shallow indentations that are broad and smooth so that it is difficult to distinguish where one flake starts and another ends.

They were worked with great skill and therefore they are more aesthetically attractive. They are usually associated with periods of highly developed tool making such as the Micoquien or the Mousterian. Soft hammer manufacturing is not reliable as the sole dating method. Relics have suffered dramatic changes throughout their useful lives.

It is common to find edges that have been sharpened, points that have been reconstructed and profiles that have been deformed by reworking in order to extend the piece's useful lifetime.

Some tools were recycled later, leading Bordes to note that hand axes "are sometimes found in the Upper Palaeolithic. Their presence, which is quite normal in the Perigordian I, is often due, in other levels, to the collection of Mousterian or Acheulean tools.

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Hand axes have traditionally been oriented with their narrowest part upwards presupposing that this would have been the most active part, which is not unreasonable given the many hand axes that have unworked bases. The following typological conventions are used to facilitate communication. The axis of symmetry that divides a biface in two is called the morphological axis.



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