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Holding John the son of Zebedee to be the author of Revelation are the second structure church answers Justin Martyr and Irenaeus, along with third jesus fathers Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian of Carthage, Origen of Alexandria, and Hippolytus of Rome. However, Papius identifies a separate John as the book of the answers of John and Revelation, so the is some variance in early tradition as to authorship of the Johannine letters. Unlike the other audiences, John the apostle is never named in the Gospel of John, though his name seems to be deliberately self-obscured by calling himself "another disciple" or the "disciple that Jesus wrote" John The "we" in John 1: There is little dispute as to a common structure for the short letters of 2 John and 3 John. Despite the book of 2 and 3 John, many common ideas and phrases are obvious. Many of these themes in John are also present in the Gospel of John.

The third, the Gospel which was praised by Paul, was that of Luke, written for gentile converts. Last of all, there is that of John. It is John who gives us the theology of Christ as revealed in this deep mystery in which the promised Messiah comes to fulfilled the Old Covenant in His sacrifice and death on the cross, and through His resurrection to establish the New Covenant which transforms man's relationship with God through the gift of the redemption and salvation of mankind.

When I had completed my year of research on John's Gospel I identified 5 statements of truth around which I would build this study: The fourth Gospel is the last Gospel to be written, therefore, John assumes we have read and studied the other 3 Gospel texts.

Rather than just recording the events of Jesus' life, John is more concerned with the significance of Christ's coming and the His significance of His ministry. That the events and "signs" about which John writes had a deeper meaning not perceived at the time but through the ministry of the Holy Spirit these events and signs were revealed after Christ's resurrection and His appearance to the disciples and Apostles.

It was after His resurrection that Jesus instructed the Apostles in the whole truth John22 ; ; ; ; ; Lukeand John's Gospel looks back on Christ's earthly life in the light of this complete understanding.

In John's Gospel there is a deeply connected thread of the liturgy of the Old Covenant Church which will be transformed in Christ's resurrection into the New Covenant creation. Grasping the multiple Old Covenant connections is very important to understanding and correctly interpreting John's Gospel and its connection to Old Covenant feasts and sacraments.

The first questions we must address are the questions of authorship and the date this Gospel account was written.

Today most modern Biblical scholars do not accept that John Yehohanan the Apostle, son of Zebedee, brother of James the Greater, and Bishop of Ephesus is the author of the fourth Gospel despite the fact that the Fathers of the Church unanimously identified the Apostle John as the inspired writer. Why then is John the Apostle's authorship almost universally rejected in modern critical scholarship?

The answer involves several objections as to why the son of the fisherman Zebedee could have authored such a deeply theological text. The following list is a summary of the most often expressed arguments against Johannine authorship:. Argument 1: The fourth Gospel does not agree with the synoptic accounts Matthew, Mark and Luke : The most often quoted argument against St.

John's authorship is that so much of the synoptic Gospel portrait of Jesus is missing from the fourth Gospel account and what is included is very different. Many modern scholars allege that an Apostle close to Jesus could not have written this very different Gospel account. Clement of Alexandria ca. These are recorded so that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that believing this you may have life through his name.

According to this argument James and his brother John were wrathful, emotional, and ambitious men who wanted to call down fire on the Samaritans Luke and desired to secure a place of honor at Jesus' right hand in His coming kingdom Mark This argument offers only a one-dimensional view at the sons of Zebedee. Surely decades of suffering for Christ and years of growing in faith and understanding yielded a much more mature man of Christian faith.

By the time the fourth Gospel was written John Zebedee, the Bishop of Ephesus, was no longer the impetuous youth described in the synoptic Gospels.

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Scholars with this view pointed out that terms and concepts peculiar to the fourth Gospel like the divine "Logos", the contrast between "light and darkness", etc. The discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls in proved that the theology of the fourth Gospel was part of the 1century AD Jewish community view.

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The Scrolls not only contained copies of all the Old Testament texts with the exception of the Book of Esther many in multiple copies but also commentaries on Old Testament books and documents of the Community at Qumran where the scrolls were found.

These sectarian documents expressed the same language and concepts that scholars had previously thought was unique to the fourth Gospel. The similarities are so striking that today many scholars believe there was a connection between John the Apostle and the religious Community at Qumran near to where the Dead Sea Scrolls were discovered.

There is no evidence in Sacred Scripture that John was poor. Scholars have quite a good idea of the scale of John's family's fishing operation on the Sea of Galilee.

Mar 13,   John's Gospel most reasonably appears to have been written after the other gospels and prior to 70AD. One clue in narrowing the dating of the text may be present at the end of John's Gospel. In John Chapter 21, we find the following passage (vs ). The fact that the gospel of John feels a need to address it points to an early date for the book. We see therefore that there exists multiple reasons for dating John early, and certainly prior to the destruction of Jerusalem in On the other hand, John shows evidence of being written after the synoptic gospels. Date of John's Gospel. We recently re-posted Russell Grigg's classic article John the Creation Evangelist, which is still as relevant now as it was when it was first published almost 20 years Kimbal B. from the USA took issue with the article's assignment of a late date to John's Gospel.

He and his brother James along with their father, Zebedee, were partners in the fishing business with the brothers Peter and Andrew Luke They owned several boats and had hired helpers Mark They were free to start and stop work when it suited them John and Luke They were also able to leave their business for a 3 year period to follow Jesus and yet were able to return to the Galilee at the end of 3 years to boats they still owned see John We know that fish was a food staple of the ancient world " Bread and fish, with the addition of olive-oil and wine, formed in ancient times the most substantial parts of the diet of the people, rich and poor.

We also know that the Roman authorities hired fishermen on the Galilee to provide fish, salted, pickled and dried, to be exported to Rome and other Roman cities.

The contracts required the fisherman to provide a set number of fish and anything they caught beyond the limit was extra income. The size and quality of Peter's house, excavated at Capernaum, confirms the impression that these were men of means who controlled their own lives.

It is larger than most of the other houses excavated there and is located directly across from the local Synagogue, a prestigious location. Acts is usually cited as proof that John and Peter lacked education. This passage, from the New Jerusalem Bible translation reads: "They [members of the Jewish Law court] were astonished at the fearlessness show by Peter and John, considering that they were uneducated laymen Their statement "uneducated laymen", 'am-ha'aretz, is more literally translated "common men".

Considering the fact that Peter and the others Apostles had not received a formal theological education that prepared one to become a member of the hereditary ministerial priesthood nor were they formally trained scribes or rabbis, the members of the court were impressed with Peter's fearless defense.

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Therefore, the passage does not indicate that the Apostles lacked education, only that the members of the court were astonished at the eloquence of their defense. Boys also studied Scripture intensively from about the ages of five to twelve, and boys who showed particular promise would have been sent to Jerusalem to continue their studies.

In any event, it is entirely credible that John the Apostle, who grew up in a Greek-culture dominated Galilee even his friends Andrew and Philip had purely Greek nameswho took a leading role in a multi-cultural ministry that spanned over 60 years and serving as the Bishop of the Christian churches of Asia Miner for circa 50 years, would have learned considerable Greek with or without any formal education in the language.

Then too, the Greek of the fourth Gospel is the simplest of the New Testament Greek texts; precisely what one might expect from a man who learned Greek as a second language.

Argument 5: Finally, one of the most often cited arguments is that John the Apostle's name does not appear anywhere in the fourth Gospel. This is true; John's name, the name of his brother the Apostle James, nor the names of his parents Zebedee and Salome, appears in this Gospel where these names are all mentioned in the other Gospels. However, none of the Gospels bears the names of the Holy Spirit inspired writers just as many of the Old Testament texts lack the names of the human authors.

Then too, there is no reason for John's name to appear in the text if he were already well known to his original audience as an Apostle and the Bishop of Ephesus.

Despite the fact that the sacred writer does not identify himself in the text there are clues, internal evidence in the fourth Gospel, that a minority of modern scholars believe clearly point to John the Apostle as the sacred writer. And, one must consider that the absence of the name of this one very important Apostle in this Gospel, rather than eliminating John as the inspired writer, points to John who, in his humility, omits his personal name and assumes the identify of the "beloved disciple," a role which all of us are called to fill.

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Point 1: The other Gospel writers all identify the son of the priest Zechariah and his wife Elizabeth kinswoman of Mary as John "the Baptist" [or Baptizer]. It is obvious that the use of this title is necessary to avoid confusion with John son of Zebedee, the Apostle. But in the fourth Gospel, John son of Zechariah is identified simply as "John" 22 times see John151923262829323540 ;24252627 ; ;3536 ;41 If there was an author other than John the Apostle wouldn't it be expected that there would be confusion between which "John" was being mentioned in the text?

John never identifies himself by name in the Gospel, but if it was understood by the various churches of Asia Minor that their Bishop, John the Apostle, was the inspired writer it was not necessary to make the differentiation between himself and John the Baptist. The author accurately portrays Old Covenant customs, religious traditions, and the fine points of halakhic legal regulations that were unique to Israel as God's holy covenant people.

The inspired writer of this Gospel is knowledgeable about the different sects of 1 st century Judaism and is especially knowledgeable about the geography and topography of what was the Roman dominated province of Judea and the city of Jerusalem, identifying and correctly describing sites that were not rediscovered in Jerusalem until the late s.

All these qualifications fit John the Apostle. Point 3: The author identifies himself as an eyewitness to the events of the fourth Gospel and as "the disciple whom Jesus loved. The author of the book of Revelation whom the Fathers of the Church testify is John son of Zebedee, Bishop of Ephesus identifies himself as "John" five times: Revelation Revelation Revelation Revelation Revelation This may be a coincidence but considering the symbolic use of numbers in both the Gospel and in Revelation it could be another indicator of John's authorship; 5 is the symbolic number of grace in Scripture see the document " The Significance of Numbers in Scripture " in the Documents section of Agape Bible Study.

But how do we know which of the Apostles is "the one Jesus loved"? The Synoptic Gospels identify 3 Apostles that Jesus singled out on important occasions. These were Peter, to whom Jesus gave the "keys of the kingdom", James, the son of Zebedee, and James' younger brother, the Apostle John.

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We can narrow down the identity of the inspired writer of the fourth Gospel to one of these 3 men and, by eliminating the other 2, we can come to one final name. The "beloved disciple" who authors the fourth Gospel cannot be Peter because the fourth Gospel records that on several occasions Peter was accompanied by the "beloved disciple" John ; James Zebedee is eliminated as a candidate for the "beloved disciple" by the fact that he was the first Apostle to be martyred circa 42AD.

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We have an accurate date for his martyrdom not only from Christian sources Actsetc. This fact eliminates James because the fourth Gospel was written at least 25 years after his death.

That only leaves John, son of Zebedee as the "beloved disciple". This argument fails to acknowledge the fact that there are many common expressions and themes used in the Gospel and in the Epistles and Revelation.

For example compare these few verses from the fourth Gospel with 1 John:. Many of St.

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The poor Greek grammar of the Revelation text, which is often cited by modern scholars, could indicate the absence of a secretary when John was imprisoned on the penal colony of Patmos although I have often found John's poor Greek grammar to be very good Christian theology.

In any event, the style and linguistic similarities between the works attributed to John's authorship are far more similar than they are different. No where else in the New Testament do you find Christ defined in terms of the "Word of God", the "Lamb of God", and the "Light of the world" except in those writings attributed to John the Apostle.

Please refer to the introduction to the Book of Revelation for a more detailed comparison between the literary themes of Revelation and the fourth Gospel. Scholars, ancient and modern, do agree that the fourth Gospel was the last to be written. When it was written is another issue. Scholars fall into 2 camps: the "early daters" and the "late daters.

Bishop St. Irenaeus, disciple of Bishop Polycarp, who was a disciple of John, who also credits John as the author of the fourth Gospel, recounts the exact information. If John were the author of the fourth Gospel, it would have to have been written prior to 98AD. You may recall in John that this passage alludes to John living to a remarkable old age'such an advanced age that a rumor was spread that this unnamed Apostle may not die. Some Biblical scholars of the 19 th and 20 th centuries held that the fourth Gospel was written sometime in the late 2 nd century AD.

However, this position is no longer acceptable because of solid evidence to the contrary.

Jan 03,   In the midst of these debates, John's Gospel is a thorough exploration of Jesus Himself. Indeed, it's interesting to note that while the term "kingdom" is spoken by Jesus 47 times in Matthew, 18 times in Mark, and 37 times in Luke - it is only mentioned 5 times by Jesus in the Gospel of John. The structure of jesus and the book of a summary of love is prominent in both audiences, along with the dating that God is light. Common between the Gospel of John and Revelation are the audiences of Christ as the Lamb and the structure of life. Christ is written by the Greek "logos", meaning "structure", in John 1: Only Rev 1: Finally, Rev. The fourth Gospel is the last Gospel to be written, therefore, John assumes we have read and studied the other 3 Gospel texts. Rather than just recording the events of Jesus' life, John is more concerned with the significance of Christ's coming and the His significance of His ministry.

There are also allusions to the fourth Gospel in the last letters of Bishop St. Ignatius of Antioch who was martyred c. Even the "late daters" today would hesitate to date this Gospel much later than about AD.

The "early daters" place the composition of the fourth Gospel before the destruction of the Temple and Jerusalem by the Roman army in 70AD; perhaps as early as 60 or 68 AD.

They point out that there is no mention of that catastrophic event which began with the Jewish revolt against the Roman Empire and which ended with such brutal devastation of Judea that it signaled the "end of the world" for the Jews of the Old Covenant.

Instead the fourth Gospel makes reference to a site in Jerusalem, in the present tense, that no longer stood after the 9 th of Ab, 70AD when the Roman army destroyed Jerusalem and the Temple.

In John it is written "Now there is in Jerusalem near the Sheep Gate a pool, which in Aramaic is called Bethesda, and which is surrounded by five covered colonnades. It had been buried in debris since the destruction of Jerusalem in 70AD. It proved to have 5 colonnades just as it was described in the fourth Gospel. Point 1: The testimony of the disciples of the Apostles and the generations of disciples to follow them cannot be ignored.

The earliest mention suggesting John as the writer of the fourth Gospel is found in St. Justin Martyr's First Apology Justin was martyred circa AD. In this work he alludes to John and speaks of the Gospels as including "memoirs of the Apostles"in the plural.

This would have to be a reference to Matthew and John since Mark and Luke were not Apostles in the narrowest use of the word as applied to the original 12 eleven after Judas' deathbut who also came to be called "apostles" as this Greek word, which means "emissaries" was later applied to all those who held positions of leadership within the Church. Justin Martyr's testimony is very important because Ephesus was his home church and he would have been very familiar with anything his great Apostle-bishop had written and the traditions associated with John's writings.

Irenaeus Bishop of Lyon b. Irenaeus was the disciple of St. Polycarp, Bishop of Smyrna who was a disciple of John the Apostle. Irenaeus, in his work Against Heresies, briefly describes the composition of and authorship of the four Gospels and records that after the first three were written "John, the disciple of our Lord, who also had leaned upon his breast, did himself publish a Gospel during his residence at Ephesus in Asia.

Later in the same work St. For much of the 20th century scholars interpreted John within the paradigm of a Johannine community, [24] meaning that the gospel sprang from a late 1st century Christian community excommunicated from the Jewish synagogue probably meaning the Jewish community [25] on account of its belief in Jesus as the promised Jewish messiah. The majority of scholars see four sections in John's gospel: a prologue ; an account of the ministry, often called the " Book of Signs " - ; the account of Jesus' final night with his disciples and the passion and resurrection, sometimes called the "book of glory" - ; and a conclusion ; to these is added an epilogue which most scholars believe did not form part of the original text Chapter The structure is highly schematic: there are seven "signs" culminating in the raising of Lazarus foreshadowing the resurrection of Jesusand seven "I am" sayings and discourses, culminating in Thomas's proclamation of the risen Jesus as "my Lord and my God" the same title, dominus et deusclaimed by the Emperor Domitianan indication of the date of composition.

John's "high Christology" depicts Jesus as divine, preexistent, and identified with the one God, [36] talking openly about his divine role and echoing Yahweh 's " I Am that I Am " with seven " I Am " declarations of his own: [37].

Yet scholars agree that while John clearly regards Jesus as divine, he just as clearly subordinates him to the one God. In the prologue, the gospel identifies Jesus as the Logos or Word. In Ancient Greek philosophythe term logos meant the principle of cosmic reason. The Hellenistic Jewish philosopher Philo merged these two themes when he described the Logos as God's creator of and mediator with the material world. According to Stephen Harristhe gospel adapted Philo's description of the Logos, applying it to Jesus, the incarnation of the Logos.

In the Targums which all post-date the first century but which give evidence of preserving early materialthe concept of the divine Word was used in a manner similar to Philo, namely, for God's interaction with the world starting from creation and especially with his people, e. The portrayal of Jesus' death in John is unique among the four Gospels. It does not appear to rely on the kinds of atonement theology indicative of vicarious sacrifice cf. MarkRomans but rather presents the death of Jesus as his glorification and return to the Father.

Likewise, the three "passion predictions" of the Synoptic Gospels Mark, and pars. Scholars disagree both on whether and how frequently John refers to sacramentsbut current scholarly opinion is that there are very few such possible references, that if they exist they are limited to baptism and the Eucharist. In comparison to the synoptic gospels, the fourth gospel is markedly individualistic, in the sense that it places emphasis more on the individual's relation to Jesus than on the corporate nature of the Church.


Moulethe individualistic tendencies of John could potentially give rise to a realized eschatology achieved on the level of the individual believer; this realized eschatology is not, however, to replace "orthodox", futurist eschatological expectations, but is to be "only [their] correlative. John's account of the Baptist is different from that of the synoptic gospels.

In this gospel, John is not called "the Baptist. In John's gospel, Jesus and his disciples go to Judea early in Jesus' ministry before John the Baptist was imprisoned and executed by Herod. He leads a ministry of baptism larger than John's own. The Jesus Seminar rated this account as black, containing no historically accurate information.

In the first half of the 20th century, many scholars, primarily including Rudolph Bultmannhave forcefully argued that the Gospel of John has elements in common with Gnosticism. Other scholars e. Brown have argued that the pre-existing Logos theme arises from the more ancient Jewish writings in the eighth chapter of the Book of Proverbsand was fully developed as a theme in Hellenistic Judaism by Philo Judaeus.

Gnostics read John but interpreted it differently from the way non-Gnostics did. Raymond Brown contends that "The Johannine picture of a savior who came from an alien world above, who said that neither he nor those who accepted him were of this world, [61] and who promised to return to take them to a heavenly dwelling [62] could be fitted into the gnostic world picture even if God's love for the world in could not.

The Gospel of John is significantly different from the synoptic gospels in the selection of its material, its theological emphasis, its chronology, and literary style, with some of its discrepancies amounting to contradictions. In the Synoptics, the ministry of Jesus takes a single year, but in John it takes three, as evidenced by references to three Passovers. Events are not all in the same order: the date of the crucifixion is different, as is the time of Jesus' anointing in Bethany and the cleansing of the Templewhich occurs in the beginning of Jesus' ministry rather than near its end.

Many incidents from John, such as the wedding in Cana, the encounter of Jesus with the Samaritan woman at the well, and the raising of Lazarusare not paralleled in the synoptics, and most scholars believe the author drew these from an independent source called the " signs gospel ", the speeches of Jesus from a second "discourse" source, [68] [20] and the prologue from an early hymn. The author was also familiar with non-Jewish sources: the Logos of the prologue the Word that is with God from the beginning of creationfor example, was derived from both the Jewish concept of Lady Wisdom and from the Greek philosophers, John 6 alludes not only to the exodus but also to Greco-Roman mystery cults, and John 4 alludes to Samaritan messianic beliefs.

John lacks scenes from the Synoptics such as Jesus' baptism, [71] the calling of the Twelve, exorcisms, parables, and the Transfiguration. Conversely, it includes scenes not found in the Synoptics, including Jesus turning water into wine at the wedding at Cana, the resurrection of Lazarus, Jesus washing the feet of his disciples, and multiple visits to Jerusalem.

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In the fourth gospel, Jesus' mother Marywhile frequently mentioned, is never identified by name. For John, Jesus' town of origin is irrelevant, for he comes from beyond this world, from God the Father. While John makes no direct mention of Jesus' baptism, [71] [67] he does quote John the Baptist 's description of the descent of the Holy Spirit as a doveas happens at Jesus' baptism in the Synoptics.

Major synoptic speeches of Jesus are absent, including the Sermon on the Mount and the Olivet Discourse[75] and the exorcisms of demons are never mentioned as in the Synoptics.

Thomas is given a personality beyond a mere name, described as " Doubting Thomas ". Jesus is identified with the Word " Logos "and the Word is identified with theos "god" in Greek ; [78] no such identification is made in the Synoptics.

In the Synoptics, the chief theme is the Kingdom of God and the Kingdom of Heaven the latter specifically in Matthewwhile John's theme is Jesus as the source of eternal life and the Kingdom is only mentioned twice. In the Synoptics, quotations from Jesus are usually in the form of short, pithy sayings; in John, longer quotations are often given. The vocabulary is also different, and filled with theological import: in John, Jesus does not work "miracles", but "signs" which unveil his divine identity.

Other scholars consider stories like the childbearing woman or the dying grain to be parables. According to the Synoptics, the arrest of Jesus was a reaction to the cleansing of the temple, while according to John it was triggered by the raising of Lazarus. Some, such as Nicodemuseven go so far as to be at least partially sympathetic to Jesus. This is believed to be a more accurate historical depiction of the Pharisees, who made debate one of the tenets of their system of belief.

In place of the communal emphasis of the Pauline literature, John stresses the personal relationship of the individual to God. The Gospel of John and the three Johannine epistles exhibit strong resemblances in theology and style; the Book of Revelation has also been traditionally linked with these, but differs from the gospel and letters in style and even theology. The teachings of Jesus found in the synoptic gospels are very different from those recorded in John, and since the 19th century scholars have almost unanimously accepted that these Johannine discourses are less likely than the synoptic parables to be historical, and were likely written for theological purposes.

The gospel has been depicted in live narrations and dramatized in productions, skitsplaysand Passion Playsas well as in film. Parts of the gospel have been set to music. One such setting is Steve Warner 's power anthem "Come and See", written for the 20th anniversary of the Alliance for Catholic Education and including lyrical fragments taken from the Book of Signs.

Additionally, some composers have made settings of the Passion as portrayed in the gospel, most notably the one composed by Johann Sebastian Bachalthough some verses are borrowed from Matthew. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the book in the New Testament. Not to be confused with Johannine epistles.

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Book of the New Testament. Matthew Mark Luke John. Saint John the EvangelistDomenichino. Apostle Beloved disciple Evangelist Patmos Presbyter.

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Apocryphon Acts Signs Gospel. Further information: Authorship of the Johannine works. Further information: Christology. Main article: Logos Christianity. See also: John and In the beginning phrase. Further information: Sacrament. Further information: John the Baptist. Further information: Christian Gnosticism.

Further information: Historicity of the Bible. He also notes that the sole exception occurs in the prologue, serving a narrative purpose, whereas the later aphorisms serve a "paraenetic function". Dodd - It holds that the eschatological passages in the New Testament do not refer to future events, but instead to the ministry of Jesus and his lasting legacy. Reconceptualizing Johannine Theology and the Roots of Gnosticism.

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The Bible Knowledge Commentary. Wheaton, IL: Victor Books. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. Eardmans Publishing Co.

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Barton, Stephen C. In Bauckham, Richard; Mosser, Carl eds. The Gospel of John and Christian Theology. Christobiography: Memory, History, and the Reliability of the Gospels. The Jewish Annotated New Testament. Oxford University Press. In Evans, Craig ed. The Routledge Encyclopedia of the Historical Jesus. Judaism in the New Testament: Practices and Beliefs.

In Boersma, Hans; Levering, Matthew eds. The Oxford Handbook of Sacramental Theology. Encountering John. Baker Academic. In Mitchell, Margaret M. Scott eds. Cambridge History of Christianity. Volume 1, Origins to Constantine.

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Cambridge University Press. Randolph In Lierman, John ed. Challenging Perspectives on the Gospel of John. Mohr Siebeck. Peeters Publishers.

Women's Bible Commentary. Westminster John Knox Press. In Porter, Stanley E. The Gospel of John in Modern Interpretation. Kregel Academic. Writing the Gospels: Composition and Memory. In Harding, Mark; Nobbs, Alanna eds. The Content and the Setting of the Gospel Tradition.

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An Introduction to The Gospels. Abingdon Press. Aune, David E. Barrett, C.

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The Gospel According to St. Philadelphia: Westminster John Knox Press. Bauckham, Richard Grand Rapids: Baker Academic. Blomberg, Craig The Historical Reliability of John's Gospel. InterVarsity Press. Bourgel, Jonathan Journal of Theological Studies. Brown, Raymond E. The Gospel According to John, Volume 1. Anchor Bible series. An Introduction to the New Testament. New York: Anchor Bible. Burge, Gary M. In Evans, Craig A. Burkett, Delbert An introduction to the New Testament and the origins of Christianity.

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