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The Jacoby rule is widely used in money play but is not used in match play.
The "Crawford rule", named after John R. Crawfor is designed to make match play more equitable for the player in the lead. If a player is one point away from winning a match, that player's opponent will always want to double as early as possible in order to catch up. Whether the game is worth one point or two, the trailing player must win to continue the match.
To balance the situation, the Crawford rule requires that when a player first reaches a score one point short of winning, neither player may use the doubling cube for the following game, called the "Crawford game". After the Crawford game, normal use of the doubling cube resumes.
The Crawford rule is routinely used in tournament match play. If the Crawford rule is in effect, then another option is the "Holland rule", named after Tim Hollan which stipulates that after the Crawford game, a player cannot double until after at least two rolls have been played by each side. It was common in tournament play in the s, but is now rarely used.
There are many variants of standard backgammon rules. Some are played primarily throughout one geographic region, and others add new tactical elements to the game.
Variants commonly alter the starting position, restrict certain moves, or assign special value to certain dice rolls, but in some geographic regions even the rules and directions of the checkers' movement change, rendering the game fundamentally different.
Acey-deucey is a variant of backgammon in which players start with no checkers on the board, and must bear them on at the beginning of the game.
The roll of is given special consideration, allowing the player, after moving the 1 and the 2, to select any desired doubles move. A player also receives an extra turn after a roll of or of doubles. Hypergammon is a variant of backgammon in which players have only three checkers on the board, starting with one each on the 24, 23 and 22 points.
The game has been strongly solve meaning that exact equities are available for all 32 million possible positions. Nard is a traditional variant from Persia in which basic rules are almost the same except that even a single piece is "safe". All 15 pieces start on the 24th wedge. Nackgammon is a variant of backgammon invented by Nick "Nack" Ballard  in which players start with one less checker on the 6-point and midpoint and two checkers on the point. Russian backgammon is a variant described in as: " In this variant, doubles are more powerful: four moves are played as in standard backgammon, followed by four moves according to the difference of the dice value from 7, and then the player has another turn with the caveat that the turn ends if any portion of it cannot be completed.
Gul bara and Tapa are also variants of the game popular in southeastern Europe and Turkey. The play will iterate among Backgammon, Gul Bara, and Tapa until one of the players reaches a score of 7 or 5. Coan ki is an ancient Chinese board game that is very similar. PlakotoFevga and Portes are three versions of backgammon played in Greece. Together, the three are referred to as Tavli.
Misere backgammon to lose is a variant of backgammon in which the objective is to lose the game. Other minor variants to the standard game are common among casual players in certain regions. For instance, only allowing a maximum of five checkers on any point Britain  or disallowing "hit-and-run" in the home board Middle East.
Backgammon has an established opening theoryalthough it is less detailed than that of chess. The tree of positions expands rapidly because of the number of possible dice rolls and the moves available on each turn.
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Recent computer analysis has offered more insight on opening plays, but the midgame is reached quickly. After the opening, backgammon players frequently rely on some established general strategies, combining and switching among them to adapt to the changing conditions of a game.
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A blot has the highest probability of being hit when it is 6 points away from an opponent's checker see picture. Strategies can derive from that. The most direct one is simply to avoid being hit, trapped, or held in a stand-off.
A "running game" describes a strategy of moving as quickly as possible around the board, and is most successful when a player is already ahead in the race. As the game progresses, this player may gain an advantage by hitting an opponent's blot from the anchor, or by rolling large doubles that allow the checkers to escape into a running game.
The "priming game" involves building a wall of checkers, called a prime, covering a number of consecutive points. This obstructs opposing checkers that are behind the prime.
A checker trapped behind a six-point prime cannot escape until the prime is broken. Because the opponent has difficulty re-entering from the bar or escaping, a player can quickly gain a running advantage and win the game, often with a gammon. A "backgame" is a strategy that involves holding two or more anchors in an opponent's home board while being substantially behind in the race. The backgame is generally used only to salvage a game wherein a player is already significantly behind.
Using a backgame as an initial strategy is usually unsuccessful. For example, players may position all of their blots in such a way that the opponent must roll a 2 in order to hit any of them, reducing the probability of being hit more than once. Many positions require a measurement of a player's standing in the race, for example, in making a doubling cube decision, or in determining whether to run home and begin bearing off.
The minimum total of pips needed to move a player's checkers around and off the board is called the "pip count". The difference between the two players' pip counts is frequently used as a measure of the leader's racing advantage. Players often use mental calculation techniques to determine pip counts in live play. Backgammon is played in two principal variations, "money" and "match" play. Money play means that every point counts evenly and every game stands alone, whether money is actually being wagered or not.
The format has a significant effect on strategy. In a match, the objective is not to win the maximum possible number of points, but rather to simply reach the score needed to win the match. For example, a player leading a 9-point match by a score of would be very reluctant to turn the doubling cube, as their opponent could take and make a costless redouble to 4, placing the entire outcome of the match on the current game.
Conversely, the trailing player would double very aggressively, particularly if they have chances to win a gammon in the current game. In money play, the theoretically correct checker play and cube action would never vary based on the score. InEmmet Keeler and Joel Spencer considered the question of when to double or accept a double using an idealized version of backgammon. In their idealized version, the probability of winning varies randomly over time by Brownian motionand there are no gammons or backgammons.
To reduce the possibility of cheating, most good quality backgammon sets use precision dice and a dice cup. Online cheating has therefore become extremely difficult.
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In State of Oregon v. Barra court case pivotal to the continued widespread organised playing of backgammon in the US, the State argued that backgammon is a game of chance and that it was therefore subject to Oregon's stringent gambling laws. Paul Magriel was a key witness for the defence, contradicting Roger Nelson, the expert prosecution witness, by saying, "Game theory, however, really applies to games with imperfect knowledge, where something is concealed, such as poker.
Backgammon is not such a game. Everything is in front of you. The person who uses that information in the most effective manner will win. Walker concluded that backgammon is a game of skill, not a game of chance, and found the defendant, backgammon tournament director Ted Barr, not guilty of promoting gambling. Early Muslim scholars forbade backgammon.
Enthusiasts have formed clubs for social play of backgammon.
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A backgammon chouette permits three or more players to participate in a single game, often for money. One player competes against a team of all the other participants, and positions rotate after each game. Chouette play often permits the use of multiple doubling cubes. Backgammon clubs may also organize tournaments. Large club tournaments sometimes draw competitors from other regions, with final matches viewed by hundreds of spectators. Winners at major tournaments may receive prizes of tens of thousands of dollars.
Starting in Januarytournament directors began awarding GammonPoints,  a free points registry for tournament directors and players, with GammonPoint awards based on the number of players and strength of field. The first world championship competition in backgammon was held in Las VegasNevada in Tim Holland was declared the winner that year and at the tournament the following year.
For unknown reasons, there was no championship inbut inTim Holland again won the title.
InLewis Deyong, who had promoted the Bahamas World Championship for the prior three years, suggested that the two events be combined. By the 21st century, the largest international tournaments had established the basis of a tour for top professional players. Major tournaments are held yearly worldwide. PartyGaming sponsored the first World Series of Backgammon in from Cannes and later the "Backgammon Million" tournament held in the Bahamas in January with a prize pool of one million dollars, the largest for any tournament to date.
The event was recorded for television in Europe and aired on Eurosport.
Inthe WBA collaborated with the online backgammon provider Play65 for the season of the European Backgammon Tour and with "Betfair" in When backgammon is played for moneythe most common arrangement is to assign a monetary value to each point, and to play to a certain score, or until either player chooses to stop.
The stakes are raised by gammons, backgammons, and use of the doubling cube. Backgammon is sometimes available in casinos. Before the commercialization of artificial neural network programs, proposition bets on specific positions were very common among backgammon players and gamblers. The game is included in Clubhouse Games: 51 Worldwide Classics for the Nintendo Switcha collection of tabletop games. Backgammon software has been developed not only to play and analyze games, but also to facilitate play between humans over the internet.
Dice rolls are provided by random or pseudorandom number generators. Real-time online play began with the First Internet Backgammon Server in July  but there are now a range of options,  many of which are commercial.
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Backgammon has been studied considerably by computer scientists. Neural networks and other approaches have offered significant advances to software for gameplay and analysis.
The first strong computer opponent was BKG 9. Early versions of BKG played badly even against poor players, but Berliner noticed that its critical mistakes were always at transitional phases in the game. He applied principles of fuzzy logic to improve its play between phases, and by JulyBKG 9. It won the matchbecoming the first computer program to defeat a world champion in any board game. Berliner stated that the victory was largely a matter of luck, as the computer received more favorable dice rolls.
In the late s, backgammon programmers found more success with an approach based on artificial neural networks. Its neural network was trained using temporal difference learning applied to data generated from self-play.
Tesauro proposed using rollout analysis to compare the performance of computer algorithms against human players. The rollout score of the human or the computer is the difference of the average game results by following the selected move versus following the best move, then averaged for the entire set of taken moves. The strength of these programs lies in their neural networks' weights tables, which are the result of months of training. Without them, these programs play no better than a human novice.
For the bearoff phase, backgammon software usually relies on a database containing precomputed equities for all possible bearoff positions. Computer-versus-computer competitions are also held at Computer Olympiad events.
The artifacts included two dice and 60 checkers, and the set is believed to be to years older than the Royal Game of Ur. On the board found at Shahr-e Sukhteh, the fields are represented by the coils of a snake. Touraj Daryaee -on the subject of the first written mention of early precursors of backgammon-writes:. The use of dice for the game is another indication of its Indic origin, since dice and gambling were a favorite pastime in ancient India.
According to the historical legend, the Indian king Dewisarm sends his minister Taxritos to Persia with the game of chessand a letter challenging Sasanian King Khosrow I to solve the riddle or rationale for the game. Khosrow asks for three days to decipher the game, but initially no-one in the court is able to make any progress.
On the third day, Khosrow's minister, Wuzurgmihr, successfully rises and explains the logic of the game. As a reciprocal challenge, Wuzurgmihr constructs the game of backgammon and delivers it to the Indian king who is unable to decipher the game. In the 11th century Shahnamehthe Persian poet Ferdowsi credits Burzoe with the invention of the tables game nard in the 6th century.
He describes an encounter between Burzoe and a Raja visiting from India. The Raja introduces the game of chessand Burzoe demonstrates nar played with dice made from ivory and teak.
Murray details many versions of backgammon; modern Nard is noted there as being the same as backgammon and maybe dating back to - AD in the Babylonian Talmud,  although others believe the Talmud references the Greek race game Kubeia.
The history of backgammon can be traced back nearly 5, years to its origins in Mesopotamia modern-day Iraq. Modern Iraqis continue to enjoy playing the game. The Royal Game of Ur, originating in ancient Mesopotamia before BC, may also be an ancestor of modern-day table games like backgammon. It used tetrahedral dice. In the modern Middle East, backgammon is a common feature of coffeehouses. Race board games involving dice have a long history in Iraq, including the Royal Game of Ur in Babylon.
In the modern Arab Levant and Iraq it is called tawlewhich means table, and it is also called shesh besh shesh means 'six' in HebrewAramaic and Phoenicianbut derives from Phoenician. Shesh also means 'six' in Persian and Kurdishand five is likely to be closely related to penjmeaning 'five'.
There are two games of nardi commonly played:. Short nardi : Set-up and rules are the same as backgammon. Long nardi : A game that starts with all fifteen checkers placed in one line on the point and on the point. The two players move their checkers in opposing directions, from the point towards the 1-point, or home board. In long nardione checker by itself can block a point.
There is no hitting in long nardi. The objective of the game is bearing all checkers off the board, and there is no doubling cube. Like today, each player had 15 checkers and used cubical dice with sides numbered one to six. The only differences from modern backgammon were the use of an extra die three rather than two and the starting of all pieces off the board with them entering in the same way that pieces on the bar enter in modern backgammon.
Zeno, who was white, had a stack of seven checkers, three stacks of two checkers and two "blots", checkers that stand alone on a point and are therefore in danger of being put outside the board by an incoming opponent checker. Zeno threw the three dice with which the game was played and obtained 2, 5 and 6. As in backgammon, Zeno could not move to a space occupied by two opponent black pieces.
The white and black checkers were so distributed on the points that the only way to use all of the three results, as required by the game rules, was to break the three stacks of two checkers into blots, exposing them and ruining the game for Zeno. In Roman times, this game was also known as aleaand a likely apocryphal Latin story linked this name, and the game, to a Trojan soldier named Alea.
Race board games involving dice have existed for millennia in the Near East and eastern Mediterranean, including the game senet of Ancient Egypt. Senet was excavated, along with illustrations, from Egyptian royal tombs dating to BC. The usual Tavla rules are same as in the neighboring Arab countries and Greece, as established over a millennium ago,  but there are also many quite different variants.
Players try to flip their pieces over the opponents' pieces to beat them. Backgammon is popular among Greeks. It is a game in which Greeks usually tease their opponent and create a lively atmosphere.
Portes: Set-up and rules the same as backgammon, except that backgammons count as gammons 2 points and there is no doubling cube.
Plakoto : A game where one checker can trap another checker on the same point. Asodio: Also known as Acey-deuceywhere all checkers are off the board, and players enter by rolling either doubles or acey-deucey. These games are played one after another, in matches of three, five, or seven points.
Players use the same pair of dice in turns. After the first game, the winner of the previous game starts first. There is no doubling cube.
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Over time it was replaced by other games such as xiandoursim.comi Chinese chess. In Japan, ban-sugoroku is thought to have been brought from China in the 6th century, and is mentioned in Genji monogatari. As a gambling game, it was made illegal several times. By the 13th century, the board game Gooriginally played only by the aristocracy, had become popular among the general public.
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In Korea, it is called Ssang-ryuk or Jeopo. The jeux de tables 'Games of Tables'predecessors of modern backgammon, first appeared in France during the 11th century and became a favorite pastime of gamblers. InLouis IX issued a decree prohibiting his court officials and subjects from playing.
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In Spainthe Alfonso X manuscript Libro de los juegoscompleted indescribes rules for a number of dice and table games in addition to its extensive discussion of chess. A wooden board and checkers were recovered from the wreck of the Vasa among the belongings of the ship's officers. Some surviving artworks are Cardsharps by Caravaggio the backgammon board is in the lower left and The Triumph of Death by Pieter Bruegel the Elder the backgammon board is in the lower right.
In the 16th century, Elizabethan laws and church regulations prohibited playing tables, but by the 18th century, backgammon was popular among the English clergy. In English, the word "backgammon" is most likely derived from "back" and Middle English : gamenmeaning 'game' or 'play'.
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