There are typically two different forensic methods for ink dating. With this method the forensic analysis determines the components in the ink, compares them against a library of standards and then allows an opinion regarding the first date that particular ink was manufactured commercially available. The dynamic approach is very useful in determining if a pen ink was placed on a document on its purported date, i. There are only a handful of forensic scientists capable of performing these tests and laboratories equipped with the proper tools. The proposed tests are minimally invasive, the latter two involving the placement of pinhole perforations in the text, paper and signatures on the Original Document.
He has testified as an expert witness in state, federal and military courts of law, as well as testified or been deposed in foreign court systems to include; Austria, Australia, Canada, Germany, Sri Lanka, and Thailand.
He has also testified at The Hague in the Netherlands and three times before the U. In that role, he managed up to scientists, technicians, and support staff in the areas of document analysis, handwriting, fingerprints, trace evidence, audio and video analysis, photography, toolmarks, computer evidence and counterfeit analysis.
InMr. Our goal is to provide efficient examination of evidence in order to help you find the truth. Whether your case requires an expert in questioned document analysis, forensic document examination, forensic document dating, ink analysis, ink dating, fine art dating, counterfeit documents, crime scene evaluation, ink age determination, paper analysis, printing process determination and age analysis, Daubert preparation, handwriting analysis, cold case analysis, fraud investigation, trace evidence, questioned documents, metallurgy or trial preparation, give GFS a call.
We are a worldwide operation. Please follow us on Facebook or LinkedIn. The first method used is known as the Learn More about Ink Dating. Instead, it can be used to provide insight as to when the art piece was likely made as well as determine the Learn More about Art Dating.
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Besides forensic age-dating, our GC Fingerprint / Fuel Identification services can identify petroleum releases to determine if the fuel is diesel, gasoline, kerosene, used motor oil, or several other commercially available fuels. Forensic experts use radiocarbon dating to establish if an individual died recently (perhaps a matter for the Justice Department) or in antiquity (a matter for the archaeologist). They do this by using the "bomb carbon" curve. Bomb Carbon, A Tracer for Recent Studies. Living . Mar 25, Now, new applications for the technique are emerging in forensics, thanks to research funded by NIJ and other organizations. In recent years, forensic scientists have started to apply carbon dating to cases in which law enforcement agencies hope to find out the age of a skeleton or other unidentified human remains.
Ink Dating, Handwriting Analysis, Art Dating, Questioned Document Expert, and Forensic Analysis Whether your case requires an expert in questioned document analysis, forensic document examination, forensic document dating, ink analysis, ink dating, fine art dating, counterfeit documents, crime scene evaluation, ink age determination, paper analysis, printing process determination and age analysis, Daubert preparation, handwriting analysis, cold case analysis, fraud investigation, trace evidence, questioned documents, metallurgy or trial preparation, give GFS a call.
Other pages discuss the use of infrared to discriminate the differences between inks that visually and microscopically look identical. The next step would be the most basic ink dating form of thin layer chromatography TLC testing to determine if two or more inks are the same or different formulations.
In order to do this the following steps are taken:. Ink dating - chemical tag: The detection of a chemical date tag can disclose the exact year that the ink being examined was manufactured. Other times the results will disclose a range of a few years as possibilities the ink could have been made. Based on the identification of formulation, which will be discussed next, it may be possible to exclude some of the possibilities and further narrow the range sometimes to only one year.
Manufacturers used two types of chemical date tags in their ink formulations. Neither of these is currently being used. It should be noted that some ink manufacturers never placed any date tags in their inks. This was to further the identification of inks using the standard ink library approach.
To be covered further down this page.
Nov 10, In fact, the dating of documents is a key area in the field of forensic science. A new method that determines the age of a document in a less invasive way .
InFormulabs of Escondido, California inserted the first type of date tag in their ballpoint inks. This was a single tag was could be extracted with the ink, separated and analyzed with ultra-violet light.
For this reason this type of tag is commonly referred to as a florescent date tag. By the combination of the presence or absence of each tag either a specific year or a range of years could be established.
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The procedure most commonly used for the detection, isolation, and analysis of these date tags in ink dating is:.
The comparison between the known tag and the questioned ink being examined should focus on whether the florescent compounds are the same color in the known and questioned. No more than three of the four tags were ever used in a given year. These results should then be photographed using ultra-violet light and color film for presentation at a later time if required.
Color slide film has been shown to work well, especially since a print can be made directly from a slide or used in a projector for presentation. The detection of these tags is complicated and requires expensive and rare scientific equipment. Information on these tags is confidential and closely kept. This type of examination is very rarely to never used in actual casework currently. The ink library approach, as it is commonly referred to, comprises the other portion of the static approach to ink age determination.
This involves the comparison of the questioned ink being examined to a known library of inks to determine the manufacturer and formula of the ink. Then by researching the library information or contacting the manufacturer an exact date of commercial availability can be established. This would be significant if the date the ink was first available is after the date the ink was purportedly written.
The method by which questioned ink is compared to a standard reference ink library is as follows:. In the stage of final analysis, if all the possible matches are eliminated then no conclusion can be drawn other than that the ink does not match any of the standards in the library.
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This is another place where a large body of knowledge of running inks is significant, to evaluate differences that are attributable to differences in batches of inks and differences that lead to the conclusion of different formulations. The best way to establish the degree of differences that can be caused by different batches of the same formulation is to run many samples of the same ink that is known to be different batches.
Our experienced fiber science team, led by Walter Rantanen, has developed an international reputation for paper and document forensics. While exact age dating of papers is not possible, the process is often able to exclude samples as being made in the time period of question. Walter Rantanen has developed a large database of paper with known ages. Ink dating - cases: In the following real case examples, one can see the manner in which the three thin layer chromatography tests can be used to aid in examinations. Ink dating - first case example: In the first example is a diary detailing racial harassment was produced as part of the evidence by the plaintiff. Handwriting Analysis Expert, Forensic Art Dating, Questioned Documents, Ink Age, Fraud and Forensic Analysis. Global Forensic Services, LLC (GFS) (formerly Stewart Forensic Consultants) is a forensic laboratory, consulting and investigative firm. We offer over 37 years of experience and training in a wide range of forensic science and private.
With inks available in common production this is much easier than with inks that are rare. Any differences that the examiner attributes to differences in batches when making an identification or elimination should be demonstrable in some manner.
If the questioned ink matches more than one of the possible library matches then any of the following may be used to further discriminate some or all of the possible matches from the questioned sample if necessary or desired:. The earliest date that the ink could have been available would then be the earliest date of introduction of all the possible matches. If the universe of possible matches is at some point narrowed to one ink formulation, then an opinion can be expressed that the questioned ink matches the formulation from the library to the exclusion of all other formulations in the reference library.
The size of the reference library of the laboratory conducting the examination is also highly important in the chances of success and also in determining the significance of a match.
The only time that a library search will not result in one and only one match is if either the questioned ink is not found in the reference library this is primarily due to the newness of the ink or the incompleteness of the reference library or if several samples from different manufacturers are so similar that they cannot be discriminated from one another.
The second option should not be confused with the same ink manufacturer producing the same ink formulation for several different ink companies, such as, Formulabs producing the same ink formulation for Parker and Cross blue ball point pens. Many other similar examples exist. It should also be noted that if extensive fading has occurred, the ink and paper have been burned or excessively heated, or the sample is somehow contaminated, i.
Obviously, no library can ever be complete and no exact measure of completeness can be accurately stated, since the number of unknown and unseen inks cannot be stated. If more analysis is done or some unique component is present, then less of a qualification is necessary. Keeping up with changes in formulations by manufacturers is also important.
In recent years several manufacturers have made minor changes to popular formulations, which are evident in the above TLC examinations.
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One example is, in approximately Bic added an additional bold blue dye to their blue ballpoint formulation. If an ink being examined contains this newer formulation with the additional blue band it could not have been written until in or after Another example is the addition of a yellow dye to the black ballpoint formulation of Itoya.
This addition was made sometime in There are also numerous other examples like the two mentioned. Ink dating - cases: In the following real case examples, one can see the manner in which the three thin layer chromatography tests can be used to aid in examinations. Ink dating - first case example: In the first example is a diary detailing racial harassment was produced as part of the evidence by the plaintiff.
There were many entries throughout four books some involving these allegations and many that did not. All of the entries that did concern the alleged harassment had been contaminated with a yellow highlighter so that a relative ink age determination discussed in the next chapter could not be performed.
Expert witnesses who are available to consult and testify regarding ink dating may be found here. The consultants found through this page may provide reports on forged checks, signatures, questioned documents, ink analysis, and forensic ink dating, as well as . - Ink Dating, Ink Age, Forensic Analysis Ink, Fraud, Forgery. There are typically two different forensic methods for ink dating. The first method used is known as the "static" approach. With this method the forensic analysis determines the components in the ink, compares them against a library of standards and then allows an opinion Location: Leff St, San Luis Obispo, , CA. Ink dating is a highly specialized forensic examination and considered to be one of the most accurate and reliable methods to help determine the age of a document. Ink Dating and Ink Aging. An ink formulation can be identified to a specific manufacturer to ascertain the first date of commercial availability. If an entry is dated in , but.
The unquestioned entries were examined first. These inks were all uncontaminated and showed to be written by a large variety of different writing instruments over the four-year period of the diaries. If the questioned entries were genuine and written on or about their purported dates they should exhibit approximately the same degree of randomness. However, in this case it was found that two ink formulations were used to write 53 of the 54 entries regarding the claim of racial harassment.
One formulation was a blue ballpoint ink and the other was a reddish-brown ballpoint ink. This grouping encompassed 53 entries over the four-year period. Furthermore, the questioned inks matched in formulation to other inks contained in the diaries but was a different batch of ink than any unquestioned ink in any of the four years of writing that was submitted, but all the ink in the questioned entries are consistent with one another.
Based on this evidence it was concluded that the entries were not written at many different times throughout the years, as purported by the author; but instead at all the same time or near the same time. The doctor denied writing these entries. A handwriting examination was conducted on these words, which is detailed in an earlier chapter as well as a relative ink age comparison, which is in the next chapter.
A thin layer chromatography examination was conducted on the two questioned entries and compared to the writings known to have been written by the doctor denying authorship, as well as several dozen comparison samples from other writers throughout the chart. It was found that the questioned portions were written with a pen that only matched writings known to have been done by the doctor that was denying authorship and was a different ink and different pen than any writing that was done elsewhere in the chart by any other writer in the dozens of entries that were used for comparison purposes.
This evidence butriced the conclusion of authorship that was arrived at from the handwriting examination. Ink dating - third case example - In the third example a day planner contained one questioned entry in a diary for the calendar year The entry was written with a blue ballpoint ink.
There were many different types of ink used throughout the diary. A thin layer chromatography TLC test was conducted to compare the ink formulations used to write the questioned entry to the other unquestioned blue ballpoint inks used in the book.
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If similar ink was found elsewhere in the diary, a relative ink age comparison test could have been conducted to determine when the questioned entry was written. However, the results of the TLC test showed that the questioned ink was a different formulation than any other entry in the entire diary.
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This result alone is an indication that the questioned entry was not written contemporaneous with its purported date.