Muslims believe that the Quran was orally revealed by God to the final prophet , Muhamma through the archangel Gabriel Jibril ,   incrementally over a period of some 23 years, beginning in the month of Ramadan,  when Muhammad was 40; and concluding in , the year of his death. The word Quran occurs some 70 times in the text itself, and other names and words are also said to refer to the Quran. The Quran is thought by Muslims to be not simply divinely inspired, but the literal word of God. According to tradition, several of Muhammad's companions served as scribes, recording the revelations. There are, however, variant readings , with mostly minor differences in meaning. The Quran assumes familiarity with major narratives recounted in the Biblical and apocryphal scriptures.
Corpus Coranicum. Sayoud September Times Literary Supplement. Retrieved 3 March Statistical analysis of the Birmingham Quran folios and Comparison with the Sanaa manuscript. Sayoud, H. For the case of the vowel A fatha in Arabicthe fatha must be present on the letter before a silent alif elongated A. We noticed that in the ancient manuscripts, the silent alif elongated A was not very used as it is the case in the recent Arabic text.
In fact, prior to the orthographic reforms carried out under the auspices of the Umayyad caliph Abd al-Malik AH 80the Arabic script did not contain a lot of vowels ,"i.
Retrieved 6 September Archived from the original on 26 September Retrieved 10 October Higham, C. Bronk Ramsey, D.
Chivall, J. Graystone, D. Baker, E. Henderson and P. Ditchfield 19 April Many earlier mainly non-Islamic traditions refer to him as still alive at the time of the invasion of Palestine.
See Stephen J. The Qur'an: an Encyclopedia. New York, NY: Routledge. Saudi Gazette. Archived from the original on 6 September Retrieved 27 July Qur'ans of the Umayyads: a first overview. Daily Sabah.
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The Huffington Post. Retrieved 4 February Mingana Collection Birmingham Quran manuscript. Category Commons. Categories : Quranic manuscripts University of Birmingham Cadbury. Hidden categories: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from August Articles containing French-language text All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from October Commons category link is on Wikidata Articles with hCards Use dmy dates from March Namespaces Article Talk.
Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as Printable version. Wikimedia Commons. Cadbury Research LibraryUniversity of Birmingham. Some of these fragments were believed to be the oldest Quranic texts yet found. The latest in origin of the Quran is the discovery of parchments of Quranic text by the University of Birmingham, the parchment the material has been radiocarbon dated to the period between and with The test was carried out in a laboratory at the University of Oxford.
The result places the parchment close to the time of Muhammad, who is generally thought to have lived between and Researchers conclude that the parchment is among the earliest written textual evidence of the Quran in existence. In the s, what has been described as a "wave of sceptical scholars" challenged a great deal of the received wisdom in Islamic studies. They tried to correct or reconstruct the early history of Islam from other, presumably more reliable, sources such as coins, inscriptions, and non-Islamic sources.
The oldest of this group was John Wansbrough - Wansbrough's works were widely noted, but perhaps not widely read. The German scholar Gerd R. Puin and his research team, who investigated these Quran fragments for many years, made approximately 35, microfilm photographs of the manuscripts, which he dated to early part of the 8th century. Puin has not published the entirety of his work, but noted unconventional verse orderings, minor textual variations, and rare styles of orthography.
He also suggested that some of the parchments were palimpsests which had been reused. Puin believed that this implied an evolving text as opposed to a fixed one.
Skeptical scholars account for the many similarities between the Quran and the Jewish and Hebrew Scriptures by saying that Muhammad was teaching what he believed to be a universal history, as he had heard it from the Jews and Christians he had encountered in Arabia and on his travels - as well as his exposure to the Hanif tradition by way of his paternal-grandfather, Abdul Muttalib.
These scholars also disagree with the Islamic belief that the whole of the Quran is addressed by God to humankind. They note that there are numerous passages where God is directly addressed, or mentioned in the third person, or where the narrator swears by various entities, including God. Aside from the Bible, Quran relies on several Apocryphal and legendary sources, like the Protoevangelium of JamesGospel of Pseudo-Matthewand several infancy gospels.
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Before Uthman established the canon of the Quran, there may have been different versions or codices in complete state, though none has yet been discovered. Such codices as may exist never gained general approval and were viewed by Muslims as individuals' personal copies.
Thabit and finding no differences between them. It is reported that he learned around seventy suras directly from Muhammad, who appointed him as one of the first teachers of Quranic recitation.
Valentines Day not for Muslims, Dating, Dating - According to Qur'an and Hadith, Etiquette of Speaking With The Opposite Gender, Fall in Love, Guidance of the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allaah be upon him) with regard to marriage, Haram things in Islam, Harram relation ships, i love you, illegal sexual intercource, Islamic Marriage, Love. Recite easily as actual printed Quran page by page. Pages are Scanned, so there are no spelling mistakes or other errors. Don't bother yourself by scrolling up and down. Full Page will be shown on the screen. This Holy Quran application has been created with beautiful design and of course very easy to use. All sajdah ayaat are highlighted with light yellow color and starting of each para is. The Birmingham Quran manuscript is a parchment on which two leaves of an early Quranic manuscript are written. In the manuscript, which is held by the University of Birmingham, was radiocarbon dated to between and CE (in the Islamic calendar, between 56 BH and 25 AH). It is part of the Mingana Collection of Middle Eastern manuscripts, held by the university's Cadbury Research doursim.comge(s): Arabic.
Muhammad Mustafa Al-A'zami lists three reports concerning the omission of three suras, Al-Fatiha and Al-Mu'awwidhataynthe two short suras with which the Quran ends Suras an he then states that "early scholars such as al-Nawawi and Ibn Hazm denounced these reports as lies fathered upon Ibn Mas'ud.
The second most influential codex was that of Ubay ibn Ka'ba Medinan Muslim who served as a secretary for Muhammad. There are reports that he was responsible for memorizing certain important revelations on legal matters, which from time to time Muhammad asked him to recite. In a few hadithsUbay is seen in a variety of roles. The first sura, entitled al-Khal "separation"is translated as: "O Allah, we seek your help and ask your forgiveness, and we praise you and we do not disbelieve in you.
We separate from and leave him who sins against you. The second sura, entitled al-Hafd "haste"is translated as: "O Allah, we worship You and to You we pray and prostrate and to You we run and hasten to serve You. We hope for Your mercy and we fear Your punishment. Your punishment will certainly reach the disbelievers. They are in fact identical to some parts of qunut reported in the collections of hadiths.
See Nawawi, al-adhkarCairo,pp. The single additional so-called aya is translated: "If the son of Adam were given a valley full of riches, he would wish a second one; and if he were given two valleys full of riches, he would surely ask for a third.
Nothing will fill the belly of the son of Adam except dust, and Allah is forgiving to him who is repentant. According to Ibn 'Abbas No.
However, Ubay himself clarifies that after sura "I had been revealed, [the sahaba] did not consider the above to be part of the Quran. This explanation of Ubay also makes it very clear that the companions of Mohammad did not differ at all about what was part of the Quran and what was not part of the Quran when the revelation had ceased.
It is also important to note that the hadith appeared in the mushaf of Ubay because it was for his own personal use; that is, in his private notebook, where he did not always distinguish between Quranic material and hadithsince the notebook was not meant for public use and he himself knew well what to make of his own notes.
According to traditional Islamic beliefs, the Quran was revealed to Muhammad, a trader in the western Arabian city of Mecca founded by the prophet Ismail, had become a sanctuary for pagan deities and an important trading doursim.com revelations started one night during the month of Ramadan in , when Muhammad, at the age of forty, received the first visit from the angel Gabriel.
All companions of Mohammad are said to have had their own copies of the Quran, with notes, for personal use. The Islamic reports of these copies of the Quran of the companions of Mohammad only tell of various differences according to reports that reached them e.
However, the tangible manuscripts of these copies of the Quran have not survived but were destroyed, having been considered obsolete. After Uthman had the other codices destroyed there were still variations in the reading and the text of this Quran.
However, scholars deny the possibility of great changes of the text arguing that addition, suppression or alteration would have led to controversy 'of which there is little trace'.
They further state that even though Uthman became unpopular among Muslims, he was not charged with alteration or mutilation of the Quran in general. During the manuscript age, the Quran was the most copied Arabic text. It was believed that copying the Quran would bring blessings on the scribe and the owner. The Arabic script as we know it today was unknown in Muhammad's time as Arabic writing styles have progressed through time and the Quran was preserved through memorization and written references on different materials.
As Arab society started to evolve into using writing more regularly, writing skills evolved accordingly. Early Quranic Arabic lacked precision because distinguishing between consonants was impossible due to the absence of diacritical marks a'jam. Vowelling marks tashkil to indicate prolongation or vowels were absent as well.
Due to this there were endless possibilities for the mispronunciation of the word. The Arabic script as we know it today, the scripta plenawhich has pointed texts and is fully vowelled was not perfected until the middle of the 9th century. The earliest known manuscripts of the Quran are collectively called the Hijazi script, and are mostly associated with the Umayyad period.
The Umayyad governor al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf al-Thaqafi later enforced this system. The inscriptions on the Dome of the Rock in fact represent the earliest known dated passages from the Quran. In these inscriptions, many letters are already provided with diacritical points.
The earliest codices of the Quran found in the Umayyad period were most likely made in single volumes, which can be determined from the large fragments that have survived.
Also during this time, the format of the codex went from being vertical to horizontal in the 8th century. During this time, there was a diversity of styles in which the Quran was written.
One characteristic seen in most of these manuscripts is the elongated shafts of the free-standing alif and the right-sided tail foot of the isolated alif. Also, these manuscripts do not have headings of chapters suras.
Instead, a blank space is left at the end of one sura and at the beginning of another. Unlike the manuscripts from the Umayyad Dynasty, many of the early Abbasid manuscripts were copied in a number of volumes.
This is evident from the large scripts used and the smaller number of lines per page. Both its script and layout turned out to be constructed according to elaborate geometrical and proportional rules. The main characteristic of these scripts was their writing style. The letters in most of these manuscripts are heavy-looking, relatively short and horizontally elongated.
The slanted isolated form of the alif that was present in the Umayyad period completely disappeared and was replaced by a straight shaft with a pronounced right-sided foot, set at a considerable distance from the following letter. Also, unlike the Hijazi scripts, these are often richly illuminated in gold and other colours.
Another difference is that sura headings are clearly marked and enclosed in rectangular panels with marginal vignettes or palmettes protruding into the outer margins.
Sep 01, (carbon dating cant pinpoint the actual date) btw it just another proof that Quran didnt change since the beginning. lastly for all muslim please be alert. the signs are everywhere. from mother nature disaster, mass animal death, plague to incoming big war is already doursim.com: Lizleafloor. The Samarkand Kufic Quran, preserved at Tashkent, is a Kufic manuscript, in Uzbek tradition identified as one of Uthman's manuscripts, but dated to the 8th or 9th century by both paleographic studies and carbon-dating of the parchment. Radio-carbon dating showed a probability of . Know that Quran is aware of your innermost flaws and that He is the Best Supporter. Finally, I must point out that we seem to notice only the positive images of dating. The oldest side is often very disappointing and, in some cases, devastating to the emotions. The saying that "all good things come to an end" is especially true with dating.
These Qurans of the early Abbasid period were also bound in wooden boards, structured like a box enclosed on all sides with a movable upper cover that was fastened to the rest of the structure with leather thongs. Unlike manuscripts copied in Early Abbasid scripts, NS manuscripts had vertical formats. His system has been universally used since the early 11th century, and includes six diacritical marks: fatha adamma ukasra isukun vowel-lessshadda double consonantmadda vowel prolongation; applied to the alif.
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Another central figure during this time was Abu Bakr b. His goal was to restrict the number of reliable readings and accept only those based on a fairly uniform consonantal text. His attempt to limit the number of canonical readings to seven was not acceptable to all, and there was strong support for alternative readings in most of the five cities.
In the present day the most common reading that is in general use is that of 'Aasim al-Kufi through Hafs. The 11th-century eastern Quranic manuscript contains the 20th juz' section of a Quran that originally consisted of 30 parts. The arrangement into 30 parts corresponds to the number of days in the month of Ramadan, during which the Muslim is obliged to fast and to read through the whole of the Quran.
Other sections or fragments of this magnificent manuscript lie scattered in various collections all over the world. A Turkish note ascribes the Quran to the hand of the Caliph Ali, Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law, and thus demonstrates the high significance of this manuscript. The text is written in Eastern Kufic, a monumental script that was developed in Iran in the late 10th century. The writing and the illumination of the manuscript bear witness to the great artistic skills of the calligrapher and the illustrator.
Although admittedly a small sample, it does suggest that the use of a verse count was a prevalent and quite deeply rooted practice in semi-Kufic Qurans between ca. Abu Ali Muhammad ibn Muqla die an accomplished calligrapher from Baghdad, was also a prominent figure at this time.
He became vizir to three Abbasid caliphs and is credited with developing the first script to obey strict proportional rules. Ibn Muqla's system was used in the development and standardization of the Quranic script, and his calligraphic work became the standard way of writing the Quran. Muqla's system became one of the most popular styles for transcribing Arabic manuscripts in general, being favoured for its legibility.
The eleventh century Quran is one of the earliest dated manuscripts in this style. This "new style" is defined by breaks and angular forms and by extreme contrasts between the thick and thin strokes. The script was initially used in administrative and legal documents, but then it replaced earlier Quranic scripts.
It is possible that it was easier to read than the early 'Abbasid scripts, which differ greatly from current writing. Economic factors may also have played a part because while the "new style" was being introduced, paper was also beginning to spread throughout the Muslim world, and the decrease in the price of books triggered by the introduction of this new material seems to have led to an increase in its demand.
The "new style" was the last script to spread throughout the Muslim world before the introduction of printing. It remained in use until the 13th century, at which point it was restricted to titles only. The influential standard Quran of Cairo " Cairo text" using the Islamic calendar is the Quran that was used throughout almost all the Muslim world until Minor amendments were made later in and in - the "Faruq edition" in honour of then ruler, King Faruq.
Reasons given for the overwhelming popularity of Hafs an Asim range from the fact that it is easy to recite, to the simple statement that "God has chosen it". A large number of pre Qurans were destroyed by dumping them in the River Nile.
Prominent committee members included Islamic scholar, Muhammad b. Methodological differences aside, speculation alludes to a spirit of cooperation. Records from Islamic sources suggest that before Caliph Uthman's standardization, after which variants were allegedly burned, the Quran may have contained either chapters Ubayy Ibn Ka'ab's codex or chapters Ibn Ma'sud's codex.
Most Muslims believe that Quran, as it is presented today, is complete and untouched, supported by their faith in Quranic verses such as "We [Allah] have, without doubt, sent down the Reminder [the Quran]; and We will assuredly guard it [from corruption]".
Due to the varying accounts and hadiths on the collection and canonization of the Quran, some scholars debate whether the Uthmanic text contains the entire body of material that was revealed to Muhammad, or if there is material missing from the text.
For example, some Sunni literature contains reports that suggest that some of the revelations had already been lost before the collection of the Quran initiated by Abu Bakr. Later, he discovered that the only person who had any record of that verse had been killed in the battle of Yamama and as a result the verse was lost.
Some of the Companions recalled that same verse, one person being 'A'isha, Muhammad's youngest wife. She is believed to have said that a sheet on which two verses, including the one on stoning, were under her bedding and that after Muhammad died, a domestic animal got into the room and ate the sheet.
Certain Shia scholars state that Ali's predecessors wilfully excluded all references to the right of Ali to be the caliph after Muhammad died. Some Shias questioned the integrity of the Uthmanic codex, stating that two surahs, "al-Nurayn" The Two Lights and "al-Walayah" - doursim.comshipwhich dealt with the virtues of Muhammad's family, were removed.
Al-Khoei addresses this issue and argues for the authenticity and completeness of the Quran on the basis that it was compiled during the lifetime of Muhammad. His argument is based on hadiths and on critically analysing the situation during and after the life of Muhammad. He states that the collection of the Quran by Abu Bakr, Umar, and Uthman occurred significantly after the caliphate was decided, and so if Ali's rule had been mentioned, there would have been no need for the Muslims to gather to appoint someone.
The fact that none of the Companions mentioned this supposed alteration, either at the beginning of the caliphate or after Ali became caliph, is regarded as proof that this alteration did not occur. Al-Khoei also argues that by the time 'Uthman became caliph, Islam had spread to such an extent that it was impossible for anyone to remove anything from the Quran.
Uthman could have altered the text but he would have been unable to convince all those who had memorized the Quran to go along with his alterations. Finally, he argues that if Uthman had altered the Quran, Ali would have restored it to its original state upon the death of Uthman, especially if verses of his rule had been removed.
Instead Ali is seen promoting the Quran during his reign, which is evidence that there was no alteration. In the 20th century, the Sanaa manuscript was discovered.
The manuscript is a palimpsest with quranic verses in both upper and lower texts. The upper text has exactly the same verses and the same order of suras and verses as the standard Quran. The majority of these variations add words and phrases, so as to emphasize or clarify the standard quranic reading. Some scholars have proposed parallels for these variations in reports of variants in 'companion codices' that were kept by individual companions to the Prophet outside of the mainstream tradition of 'Uthman; but these correspondences are much the minority.
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List English translations by Ahmadis. Abrogation Biblical narratives Esoteric interpretation Hermeneutics Persons related to verses. See also: Wahy. Jews Christians. Durood Naat Mawlid.
Sunni view of Ali Shia view of Ali. Related articles. Further information: Canonization of Islamic scripture. See also: Textual criticism.
Main article: Biblical and Quranic narratives. Further information: List of legends in the Quran and Islamic views on Jesus' death. Further information: Early Quranic manuscripts. Muhammad and the Believers: at the Origins of Islam.
London, England: Harvard University Press. Oxford Islamic Studies Online.
Retrieved 1 May Retrieved 24 July Random House. The Qur'an: A User's Guide. Oxford England: Oneworld Publications. Asian Music. The Qur'an: an Encyclopedia.
New York, NY: Routledge. Jane Dammen MacAuliffe ed. Retrieved 14 October Islam: A Worldwide Encyclopedia. Question ". Islam Question and Answer. Retrieved 2 July The Blackwell Companion to the Qur'an. Chichester, West Sussex: Blackwell Publishing. The Prolegomena to the Qur'an.
New York: Oxford University Press. Studia Islamica. New York: Routledge. Retrieved 19 September Abdur Rehman, Rafiq ed. An approach to the Quranic sciences.
Translated by Siddiqui, Mohammed Swaleh. Birmingham: Darul Ish'at. Introducing A. Housman : Preliminary Studies. Cambridge scholars publisher. Retrieved 17 August Islamic Calligraphy: Noon-wal-qalam. The collection of the Qur'an.
Translated by Kidwai, A. Karachi: Qur'anic Arabic Foundation.
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UK Islamic Academy. Ihsan Abbas; C. Gautier H. Juynboll trans. Stephen Humphreys trans. Humphreys trans. In Bearman, P. Encyclopedia of Islam Second ed. Oxford Bibliographies. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Most accounts accept the basic framework of the Muslim memory, with the role of Muhammad as the recipient of revelation and the role subsequent caliphs in bringing the text together clearly separated.