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The false positive rates are lowered because disorders are identified not only on the basis of quantification of metabolites but also by the screening for a pattern of metabolite abnormalities as opposed to screening for a single metabolite and also by measuring metabolite ratios.

The metabolic pathways and rationale for treatment of HCU will be discussed. Within the first group, three babies with PKU and one with Citrullinemia were identified. In the latter group, we identified 8 amino acid disorders, 4 urea cycle defects, 7 organic acidemias and 1 fatty acid oxidation defect. Early diagnosis and treatment prevents brain damage and the ensuing mental retardation. The recall rate was quite high at 2. We identified 15 amino acid disorders and 13 organic acidemias The conclusions we can deduct from our experience with screening for IEM by tandem mass spectrometry are 1.

The overall frequency of IEM is high in our country and newborn screening for these disorders at least in a selected high risk group will be cost effective both for the family and for the society in the long run. Quite a number of treatable IEM can be rapidly diagnosed from a very simple samplenamely a dried blood spot which is both easy to obtain, to tranport and to store. This advantage should be made use of for screening IEM especially in states of emergency and in cases where laboratories capable of performing advanced metabolic tests are not readily available.

Some of these areas are: Pre implantation genetics, detection of metabolic diseases of foetus and screening for treatable metabolic diseases of new born. Also, at the time, approach to disease detection is to look for mutations on the gene, but there are variations of mutations in each and every country even in the same country at different locations and sequence analysis is not a screening test.

This area is named foetal biochemistry and many biochemistry laboratories are shifting interest to this area. Without any doubt, the diagnosis of the diseases and abortion after the diagnosis will be within the frame of prenatal rules. Foetal biochemistry will be the starting point for in utero genetic treatments in near future. We have aimed to share our experiment and knowledge on foetal biochemistry with our colleagues with this presentation.

Laboratory medicine is an important discipline in health care with its remarkable effect on risk assessment, diagnosis of health and disease state and especially from newborn screening approach with its, retest, recall and follow-up procedures. This real life trial, emphasizes the need of split sample design evaluation of newly opened test kits.

Quantitative measurement of phenylalanine and nTSH neonatal thyroid stimulating hormone were performed in both of the laboratories. After validation of calibrations were performed in the laboratory that used these industrially prepared screening kits for the first time, the same real newborn blood spot samples were analysed for phenylalanine and nTSH measurements in both of the laboratories and the obtained results were compared non parametrically and examined by the Deming regression graph and by the difference plot.

However, nTSH values were found to be significantly higher in the laboratory that used the nTSH kit for the first time.

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This work implies that acceptable comparability of split sample design analysis is strictly needed for testing the analytical performance of the industrially prepared tests kits and this can be achieved only by certified reference materials. These disorders which are mainly seen in the newborn period and early childhood are characterized by the high levels of one or more than one amino acids in the plasma or urine due to the enzyme deficiency.

In the light of these points, accurate, sensitive and prompt amino acid analysis in biological fluids is very important. Blood, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, vitreous fluid and amnion fluid are used for the diagnosis of disorders of amino acid metabolism. The analytical techniques for the measurement of amino acids can be investigated in two parts as screening tests and quantitative methods. Screening tests including Guthrie test, thin layer chromatography, paper chromatography, photometric methods and spot tests in the urine.

In the recent years a world wide and important technique, that could screen many metabolic diseases in a single analytical step named tandem mass spectrometry has been used for this purpose.

Among the tests those are used for the quantitative measurement of amino acids are capillary electrophoresis, gas-liquid chromatography, high pressure liquid chromatography, ion-exchange liquid chromatography amino acid analayzer and tandem mass spectrometry. High resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and molecular analysis are also used in amino acid measurements. Tandem mass spectrometry TMS is an analytical technique that can be implemented in the analysis of blood spots taken shortly after birth.

Rather than testing the blood for the presence of just one compound e. MCAD deficiency and some organic acidemias e. One of the most recent and effective technic of those is tandem mass spectrometry. Tandem mass spectrometry is a very important analytical technique that could determine many metabolic diseases from one blood sample in a very short time in a single analytical step. Phenylketonuria, hyperphenylalaninemia, maple syrup urine disease, tyrosinemia type I and II, homocystinuria, hypermethioninemia are the disorders of amino acid metabolism those could be determined by tandem mass spectrometry.

In addition to amino acid disorders fatty acid oxidation disorders, organic acidemias and urea cycle defects could also be determined by tandem mass spectrometry. This technique detects well amino acids and acylcarnitines; at this moment however it is still impossible to screen for congenital hypothyroidism or biotinidase deficiency, and there is only a limited experience in screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia using this technique.

In the newborn period, screening tests were begun by the screening of phenylketonuria which is a kind of bacterial inhibition test progressed by Robert Guthrie. Thin layer chromatography and paper chromatography are chromatographic methods those are used for the separation and determination of amino acids. The sensitivity of the screening by TMS is high but the specificity can be rather low with a high rate of false positives resulting in a high number of retests and recalls: e.

A broad screening program also involves the detection of non-diseases e. MCAD def. In quantitative amino acid analysis with high pressure liquid chromatography the main steps of the method are the pre-column derivatization of the amino acids with phenylisothiocyanate, o-phthalaldehyde and other similar compounds, separation in reversed-phase column and detection with either ultraviolet or fluorescence detectors.

In amino acid analayzer the main part of the system is ionexchange column, followed by gradient elution. Long period of investigation is a disadvantage for these methods. The great danger in my opinion of the technique of TMS is that labs that have no experience whatsoever with screening, will take over the newborn mass screening solely on the base that they possess such an instrument, Amino acid levels in body fluids are influenced by a number of factors, such as age, physiological changes, nutritional status, diseases, medications and toxins.

Also the factors such as collection time, transportation and keeping of the samples are very important. As a conclusion to gain success in the treatment and to prevent permanent sequels due to disorders of amino acid metabolism which makes up a great part of metabolic diseases, early diagnosis and treatment is highly important. Polycystic ovary syndrome PCOS is the most common reproductive endocrinopathy of women in their childbearing years.

Current data demonstrate that type 2 diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia are more frequent among women with PCOS which is a form of functional ovarian hyperandrogenism. The most likely cause of increased androgen production by both the ovaries and the adrenals is abnormal regulation of hydroxylase and lyase activation of Pc17 enzyme.

Insulin resistance, at least in part, is responsible for the elevated androgen production. Recent data suggest that amelioration of insulin resistance may lead to improved hyperandrogenism.

Sugars used to provide energy for the body include glucose, sucrose, fructose among many others. Some sugars need to be broken down, usually by enzymes, before they can be used by the body. If the enzymes needed are not present usually due to an inherited disorderthese sugars can build up and cause problems. The type of problem depends on the sugar involved and the localization of the enzyme defect. Most of the inherited disorders of carbohydrate metabolism fall into a few broad clinical syndromes.

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Hepatomegaly, convulsions, hyperbilirubinemia, cataract, mental retardation, diarrhea, episodic lactic acidosis from early infancy, failure to thrive, and hypotonia are most common signs and symptoms.

The demonstration of defective enzyme activity must serve as the basis of diagnosis and treatment. One the other hand a negativ feed back system operates between Cortisol Leptin and Insulin. Insulin and Cortisol stimulate the production and the secretion of Leptin. In turn Leptin inhibits the secretion of Insulin. It is advised to check acylcarnitine levels, especially octanoylcarnitine by tandom-MS, in blood samples taken for screening of phenylketonuria and neonatal hypothyroidism.

Besides the Hypothalamic peptides, intestinal peptides play roles in the control of appetite. Catabolism of these lipids contains enzymes and activator proteins. A new lysosomal digestion model was developed and mechanisms of glycosphingolipids hydrolysis within the lysosome was understood. The discovery of sphingolipid activator proteins was an important factor in this process.

By investigating the molecular basis of the diseases, basic principles of storage disease pathology begin to understood and several mechanisms were described in the pathogenesis. However, our understanding of pathogenesis in these diseases is incomplete. The generation of mouse models and sphingolipid research on cell signaling will help to investigate the pathophysiology and have facilitated the development of new and promising therapeutic strategies for these diseases, most of which are not treatable at present.

Currently few options exist for therapy. One of these is enzyme replacement therapy ERT that has been a highly effective therapy in type 1 Gaucher disease and more recently has been undertaken in Fabry disease. ERT is not beneficial to the neuronopathic form of glycosphingolipidoses. Gene therapy holds considerable promise for this family of diseases and evaluation in mouse models is a major way forward in evaluating different gene delivery systems and evaluating efficacy.

Small-molecule drugs have recently emerged as candidate therapeutics for juvenile and adult forms of glycosphingolipidoses. The approach is to use inhibitors of glycosphingolipid biosynthesis and thereby reduce the number of glycosphingolipid molecules the cells degrade. These drugs have been evaluated multiple mouse models of glycosphingolipidoses, including those with brain involvement. In all cases efficacy has been demonstrated.

Mersin University, Mersin, Turkey Disorders of lipid metabolism will be discussed in two major categories. One of them is composed of frequently seen lipoprotein disorders in clinical biochemistry laboratories.

Different disorders of lipoprotein metabolism are triggered by apolipoproteins, enzymes, and lipoprotein receptors, some clinically characterized by hyperlipoproteinemia. These disorders can be classified under seven titles according to Frederickson and WHO. Hypolipoproteinemias which are not seen as frequent as hyperlipoproteinemias are also types of lipoprotein metabolism disorders.

Routine tests such as total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, lipoprotein aapo AI, and apo B, and spesific tests such as HDL subfractions, lipoprotein a isoforms, apo E polymorphism, apo Bapo CII-apo CIII mutations, and hepatic lipase-lipoprotein lipase, lechitine cholesterol acyl transferase activities are being used to determine the etiopathogenesis of lipoprotein metabolism disorders.

The second category of the lipid metabolism disorders is composed of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation defects. These disorders are caused by a group of enzyme deficiencies and transport defects, and clinically characterized by hypoglycemic-hypoketotic coma, induced by fasting.

In acute phase of these disorders, serum electrolytes, glucose, ammonia, transaminase levels are routine screening tests, while carnitine-acylcarnitine levels, and acylcarnitine profiles, urinary organic acid analyses by GC-MS, measurements of enzyme activities, and mutation analyses are required in determining the etiology.

With its Turk J Biochem, ; 28 3It is interesting to reflect that diseases that glycolipid catabolism helped unravel the basic biochemistry of glycolipids and this knowledge, in turn, has led to new therapies for these diseases. The science has therefore gone full circle from disease to basic biochemistry to disease therapy.

P1 Our study was carried out in patients with type II diabetes mellitus T2DM men, women and healthy volunteers as controls 91 men, women. Serum Hcy levels were measured in the fasting state by immunological assay.

This brought about biomass increase times. The scientific work carried out at our laboratory based on a numhed accumulation of yeast biomass and the content of free proline in it is established. The scientific work carried out at our laboratory based on a number of research objects haricot butterfly, pea shoot, infusorian, rat mammary gland confirm that the intensively growing plants and animal cells oxidise the free proline at a maximal rate.

The results show the identity of ADA2 obtained and enzyme from blood serum. The difference of their values for two isoforms was of the same order The results show the similarity in structural environment of isoenzymes active centers, responsible for the adenine binding.

At the same time supression of some enzymes and their izoenzymes activity was observed. Under the influence of these extracts there is an abrupt fall in the overall activity of arginaza and enzymes of proline biosynthesis. The activity of two arginaza izoenzymes and enzymes of proline biosynthesis of yeasts Candida guilliermondii is also sharply supressed. The activity of highmolecular and lowmolecular arginaza izoenzymes is supressed under the influence of St.

Under the influence of milfoil absint, motherword and St. The herbs which are studied have the property of curing certain diseases. They are successfully used to cure diabetes, kidney and digestion system diseases and some others.

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The herbs investigated by us contain proline in considerable amount. The protector role of proline was proved in extremal conditions, in particular, in radiation destruction of the organizm. Several factors are discussed in pathogenesis of BPH, including aging, hormonal factors and diet. All of them can affect lipid levels in the organism.

So, our aim was to characterize lipid parameters in patients with BPH. Cross-section analysis on 78 consecutive patients mean age Borderline, high or very high values of LDL were observed in In Our study reveals patients with BPH as a population with a high dyslipidemia prevalence. Further studies are needed to elucidate role of dyslipidemia in BPH.

Nevertheless, our results indicate that attention must be paid on patients with BPH, because of the possible impairment of cardiovascular risk profile. The physiological role of ADA2 is poorly understood. P6 The goal of the present work was the investigation of molecular and kinetic properties of purified ADA2 from pleural fluid and its comparison with the serum ADA2. The molecular weight kDa, pH maximum at 5. This compounds autacoids have membrane protective, antioxidative properties under degenerative, ischemic conditions and toxic damage.

However the mechanism of transport of the exogenic saturated N-acylethanolamines in mammalian is not clear. The aim of the study was to investigate regional distribution of exogenic NSE in rat brain and to evaluate effect of NSE on the stereroidogenesis and the lipid composistion of the rat brain under X-ray ionization. For these purposes radioisotope label method, spectrofluorimetry, thin-layer and gas-liquid chromatography were used.

The aim of the study was to investigate of the putative mechanism of NAEs transport in mammalian blood. For these purposes radioisotope label method, spectrofluorimetry, thin-layer and computing modeling were used. Rats were administrated with radiolabeled NSE per os. Hypothalamus, cerebellum, brain cortex, white matter, brain stem, pituitary and adrenal glands were studied.

It was found that labeled NSE were primarily accumulated in hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal glands. Radiolabeled N-[9,H]-palmitoyethanolamine was administrated to rats per os.

Whole blood were collected and plasma was obtained. The plasma protein fractions after HPLC were collected at the scintillation vials and radioactivity was measured. The higher radioactivity was found in the albumine fraction. Rats were irradiated by X-ray with 2 Gy dose. Through 2 weeks after irradiation the quantity of palmitic acid in brain phospholipids and plasmalogen form of phosphatydilcholine were increased, free cholesterol and diacyl-form of phosphatydilcholine were decreased and Nacylated glycerophospholipids were accumulated.

NSE pretreatment prevented these changes. This indicate a possibility of the existing of NSE binding site on albumine. The dynamical and structural properties of HSA-NSE complex have been investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. The accumulation of radiolabeled NSE in brain indicates it penetration through hematoencephalic barrier and speculated possible role of NSE in the brain functioning and stress response regulation by hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal gland system.

NSE reveals protective effect on brain cell membranes under the X-ray ionization. The infrastructure is based on an open distributed computing platform, and its specification is described using the open distributed processing reference model. The design and specification of a framework for the interoperability of existing systems and new advanced services are describe, and consequently, concentrates on the issue of integration.

Laboratory Automation is essential to release laboratory technicians from simple routine work, allowing them to make use of their time for more skilled tasks. Viral infections often alter physiological systems in the host. Viral diseases were diagnosed by the micro-complement fixation test. The results are shown in Table 1.

IGFBP1 was not detected. The statistical significance of differences between groups was assessed by the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test. Also total protein and albumin levels were determined from all group of samples and no significant changes were observed. Table 1. In group I, all three tests were in reference limits.

These concentration changes in FT3, can be due to the same reasons with high temperature states in body. It is postulated that the released T4 might play a critical role in response to infection by providing a supply of iodine for antibacterial purposes.

Thus, FT3 is left behind which is given to the plasma. Although the biophysical theory of macromolecular crowding is well developed, there are not many biochemical data on the macromolecular crowding effect on protein interactions, especially enzymes.

The aim of the present work was to examine the effect of macromolecular crowding on the native and denatured enzymes. The crowding conditions have been realized with high concentrations of polysaccharide dextran, polyethylene glycol and proteins BSAas crowding agents. These agents are inert, and did not interact with any of the enzymatic activities assayed glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, leucine amino peptidase, malate dehydrogenase and lysozyme. However, after hours of incubation in the presence of crowding agents, the enzymes showed partial inactivation or a slight increase of activity, depending on the nature of the enzyme and of the crowding agent.

The results concerning the enzymes denatured by chemical agents GuHCl, ureaheat or glycation are also different for each denaturing procedure. None of the agents protect the enzymes against glycation-induced inactivation, whereas they significantly increase the yield of reactivation of chemically-denatured leucine amino peptidase. It is obvious from these results that the possible influence of crowding upon a particular enzymatic reaction should be considered for a proper understanding of its physiological role.

It has been shown that glycation of insulin resulted in reduced biological activity glucose transport and metabolism, cell growth, and mitogenesisbut little has been published on the effect of glycation on structural stability and integrity of insulin molecule. In the present work, insulin was in vitro glycated by various sugars glucose, fructose and ribose and changes such those of the absorption and fluorescence emission spectra were demonstrated. Cross-linking and aggregation have also been demonstrated in the glycated insulin.

The possibility to prevent these changes has been studied using natural compounds proline, pyruvate and carnosine, as well as the drug aminoguanidine. The results indicated that these compounds partially protected insulin against the structural changes induced by glycation, at different stages of glycation, acting by different mechanisms. The NDP kinase holoenzymes consist of 6 subunits, the catalytic subunits display a low molecular weight Addition of NaCl 0.

Autophosphorylation of the isoforms requires no metal, but when metal is added it occurs at a wider range of pH values. Hydrolysis of the two isoforms followed by T.

Antibodies raised against each of the two isoforms were capable of reacting with both of them. The transfer reaction exhibited two optimum pH values pH 7 and 9 for purine and pyrimidine, ribo- and deoxyribo-diphosphonucleosides. The deleterious cumulative effects of the advanced glycation end-products AGEs are felt after months or years, whereas insulin plasma half-life under normal conditions is less than min. More recently, insulin glycation has been demonstrated in pancreatic and islet extracts from various animal models of diabetes type 2, in clonal insulin-secreting cells maintained under hyperglycemic conditions in culture and in diabetic plasma.

The substrate preference these enzymes display towards UDP suggest that they play a central role in the biosynthesis of cellulose and starch, two polysaccharides essential for the development of endosperm.

Chlorophyll fluorescence and oxygen evolution was measured for evaluating the seedlings response to irradiation. Alfa were supplied with M, M and 5. These compounds appeared 4 h after UV-B treatment, reached maximum after 24 h and then declined. The content of these compounds enhanced in the plants treated with proline before UV-B irradiation and decreased as a result of NaCl pre-treatment in a concentration depending manner. The post-treatment light regimes affect the level of A - decreased in the light and increased in darkness.

The syntheses of UV-absorbing compounds extracted in acidified methanol continued for a long period after UV exposure and after h the values of A are higher.

The post-treatment light regimes do not affect the level of UV-absorbing compounds. Apart of high absorption at nm, three different maxima atand nm were observed. In contrast to the absorbance at nm, the intensities of these bands decreased h after irradiation. NaCl pre-treatment is more effective in reduction of the absorbance in the region than proline. Objective: The lysine-rich histones H1 the so-called linker histones are involved in the formation and maintenance of higher order chromatin structures.

They also act as non-specific repressors of transcription. The number of H1 subtypes and their amino acid composition vary between different species, and subtypes are also diversely distributed in various types of tissues and cells of different maturity status.

13th Balkan Biochemical Biophysical Days & Meeting on Metabolic Disorders Programme & Abstracts 2) Institute for Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Skopje, Republic of Macedonia OCTOBER 12, - SUNDAY HALL C Correspondence: [email protected] OPENING LECTURE Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers and the second cause of death in . [??] ???? ? ?: dating newbie tips ayct nitanati matchmaking part 7. 13th Balkan Biochemical Biophysical Days & Meeting on Metabolic Disorders Programme & Abstracts 2) Institute for Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Skopje, Republic of Macedonia OCTOBER 12, - SUNDAY HALL C Correspondence: [email protected] OPENING LECTURE Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers and the second cause of death in .

Two structurally related H1 variants H10 and H5 have been identified as differentiation-dependent. The apparent diversity of H1 subtypes may be related to their specific role in defining functional states of chromatin in vivo.

It has been suggested that the subtypes of histone H1 may differ in their ability to condense chromatin. The aim of this study was to investigate the binding properties of both H10 and H5 histones compared to the main H1 subfraction.

Methods: Cultured human fibroblasts AG were H1depleted by 0. Thereafter, the cells were reconstituted with purified mouse main H1, H10 or avian H5 linker histones subfractions. The presence of H1 histones in nuclei was verified in the reconstitution experiments using Alexa-labeled H1. Reconstituted histones were extracted with salt concentrations in the range of 0. The affinity binding of H1 histone subfractions to chromatin was analyzed by image cytofluorometry, using DAPI as an indirect probe.

There was not correlation between the level of A and UV-B tolerance of barley seedlings. It is possible these compounds to serve as stress markers and not for stress protectors. Results and Conclusions: The exogenous linker histones H10 and main H1 bound to chromatin with lower affinity than the native ones. However, we could not detect any significant differences between the main H1 and H10 histone subfractions in their affinity for chromatin. We conclude that H1 histone interactions with chromatin are controlled by mechanisms independent from H1 histone subtype composition.

On the other hand, the exogenous histone H5 is more tightly bound to chromatin, compared to the other H1 subvariants, due most probably to the relatively high content of arginine. No rooting occurred in cuttings without IBA-treatment. Both genotypes showed similar patterns of soluble as well as wall ionically bound cationic peroxidase isoforms.

The number of isoforms was unchanged during the rooting process induction, initiation and expression phase but an increase in peroxidase activity initiation phase followed by decrease has been found in IBA-treated cuttings. Microscopic observations revealed anatomical differences between genotypes. NDPK E. According to our studies Alyssum murale a nickel-accumulator plant expressed a new endo-DNase it showed nicking action against plasmid DNA isoform under Ni or Mn toxicity in both root and shoot.

The DNase electrophoretic patterns were similar in root and shoot and revealed four DNase isoforms in different intensities. In contrast, different accumulation of a number of RNase isoforms were observed in roots versus shoots indicating that some RNases are controlled in an organ specific manner.

Our studies on active gel analysis and SDS-electrophoresis showed that they could be used in studying the responses of enzymes taking part in the metabolism of nucleic acids under metal toxicity. Recently, the increase in levels of soluble adhesion molecules SAMs has been proposed as a potential marker of endothelium derangement.

The aim of this work, therefore, was to evaluate whether a new generation antioxidant Activin derived from the grape seed proanthocyanidins, could reduce the induction of SAMs and decrease the oxidative stress in scleroderma patients. Plasma was obtained in fasting state between 8 to 9 a. The circulating levels of SAMs except for sP-selectin were significantly increased in scleroderma patients.

In conclusion our results demonstrate the beneficial effect of Activin, which could reduce the inflammatory response and oxidative stress developed in scleroderma patients. Ozlem B. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme ACE ; a component of reninangiotensin system has an important role in the regulation of blood pressure.

Zinc Zna trace element with important biological functions, is located in the catalytic site of ACE. Calcium Camagnesium Mgsodium Napotassium K also appear to be involved in hypertension pathogenesis.

ACE activities in plasma samples were determined by a quantitative kinetic method. Plasma Ca analyses were performed by the spectrophotometric measurement of the purple color of Ca- cresolphthalein complexone complex. Plasma Mg, ionized Ca, Na and K levels were determined by automated methods. Plasma Na, K and Cai levels remained normal in essential hypertension. There are complex associations between arterial pressure. Ca and Mg deficiencies seem to be associated with increased prevalence of hypertension.

Increases in erythrocyte Zn may have a future potential use for diagnosis of hypertension. The relations among these parameters in different steps of asthma were interpreted.

Association of them with airway inflammation observed in patients with bronchial asthma as well as the roles and the contributions to the pathological processes were evaluated. A total of 62 individuals, 32 asthmatics and 30 controls, were included into the scope of this study. Considering the facts that NO modulates the catalytic activity of MPO and induces the expression of heme oxygenase as the important contributor to the mechanisms causing free Fe release; it is concluded that elevated NO, MPO and Fe levels observed in the asthmatic group act in a harmonic manner and appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of asthma.

Nitric oxide concentrations were determined by using Greiss reaction in plasma and vitreous humor samples. Glutathione levels were determined in blood and vitreous humor samples, using DTNB, a disulfide chromogen. Twenty- three patients with PDR, 18 patients with PVR and 21 cadavers as the control group were included in the study.

Plasma and vitreous NO levels were Blood and vitreous GSH levels were 5. Hb, 0. Hb, The results indicate that adaptation to chronic stress involves the mechanisms which alter the stress-specific SOD response to acute stress. Kiril and Methodij University", Skopje 3 Biochemical Laboratory, Medical Center, Bitola Macedonia Aim: This study was undertaken to determine the correlation between concentration of calcium Ca and phosphorus P with the age - young pubertal boys and girls and persons over 65 years.

The results were statistically analyzed by the Student's t-test. In order to explain the role of antioxidant response in stress-induced injury, we examined the effects of two types of acute stress as well as combined effects of chronic and acute stress on MnSOD and CuZnSOD activity in rat brain cortex. Female Wistar rats, 2. Conclusion: The obtained results suggest relationship between concentration of Ca and P with the age. The older persons have significant lower level of Ca and P compared with the young persons.

Fluorescence microscopy may be used to identify amyloid plaques and tangles in the brain and other tissues of control. We have incorporated protein structure methods into Matlab to generate routines for image processing. Once the desired structural images are obtained, correlation analysis can be performed with the fluorescence microscopy images. In mammals 8 different classes alpha, kappa, mu, omega, pi, sigma, theta and zeta of soluble GSTs have evolved with members that promote the detoxification of many structurally different electrophiles.

The evolution of proteins for novel functions involves point mutations and recombinations of domains or structural segments. Alkyl halides, epoxides and benzyl halides are substrates of GSTs. Substrates which were worked are industrial intermediates, laboratory reagents. It behaves as alkylating agents. Reports have shown them to cause the respiratory and dermal toxicity in animals and humans. It has also been reported to be carcinogenic in experimental models.

Thus, the wide-spread use of these aliphatic epoxides, halides is of great concern in human health problem. GST activities towards 1,2 Epoxy 4-nitrophenoxy propane EPNP and 4-nitrophenethyl bromide NPBstyrene 7,8 oxide, acrylonitrile, benzyl bromide benzyl chloride, epichlorohydrin, glycidol were measured.

Reactions of substrates with glutathione were measured by following the disappearance of glutathione.

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Activities were expressed as micromole of glutathione reacted per minute. The most active substrate which is epichlorohydrin with T, substratesaturation curve by varying its concentration at constant GSH concentration was prepared.

Thus, Km and Vm values were determined. National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, New York, USA Fluorescence-assisted synchrotron IR microspectroscopy permits us to identify target proteins with fluorochromes or fluorescent antibodies and simultaneously determine their Turk J Biochem, ; 28 3In order to generate IR images, the IR data was reduced to a relatively compact description through cluster analysis. The principal function of clustering is to display so that the influences or causes in arriving a pathogenic state might be predicted.

Desired function of clustering is to reveal the protein structures in an infected tissue. Result of the cluster analysis can contribute directly to classification schemes. If the grouping suggested by the cluster analysis is to be adopted for operational use, then it may become the basis for classifying new observations.

The developed software provides Linear Discriminant Analysis LDA option to perform classification based on the output of the cluster analysis. Nifedipine- as a calcium channel blocker- in pregnant women hypertension will prevent calcium accumulation and thus, will restore blood pressure.

The study was carried out on 25 third trimester pregnant women, aged between 25 and 35 years old, diagnosed with pregnancy induced hypertension PIHand treated with nifedipine. The results were compared with a control group- 20 third trimester normal pregnant women. As marker of lipid peroxidation we used malondialdehyde MDA.

The increasing of antioxidant enzyme activities and GSH denotes a benefic response to nifedipine treatment and it is related to MDA decreasing, demonstrating that this drug might have antioxidant properties. So, even UA decreased under treatment, its final value still remains higher demonstrating its predictive role in PIH.

Proline accumulated under salt stress conditions might be one the reasons for the observed tolerance of barley seedlings to UV-B radiation. Among icosanoids, the prostaglandins PG are the most researched biological compounds knowing their involvement in normal and pathological processes.

We studied the aminotransferases, total bilirubin in blood as markers of hepatic lesionsas well as antioxidant parameters glutathione peroxidase, glutathione in liver homogenates, in rats treated with IPEF and IPEE. As marker of lipid peroxidation we determined malondialdehyde.

We also compared the biochemical parameters with the histopathological cts. Bonchev str.

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The supposed protective role of high endogenous content of proline accumulated in the cells as a result of NaCl treatment in the light and the UV-B sensitivity of PSII as an in situ sensor for radiation stress was analyzed. Turk J Biochem, ; 28 3Chlorophyll fluorescence and oxygen evolution was measured for evaluating the seedlings response to irradiation.

NaCl treatment resulted in a decrease of total chlorophyll content and an increase in H2O2, free proline and lipid peroxidation, as quantified by measurement of malondialdehyde. Significantly more proline was accumulated in the light than in darkness.

The combination of UV-B and NaCl treatment produced an additive effect on most of the parameters studied. The disease is widely seen all over the world in spite of this etiology is still unknown. Recently, hydrogen peroxide accumulation and epidermal oxidative stress proposed as etiopathogenesis in vitiligo. We suggest blood antioxidant systems could be affected or may be a part of disease.

The study was performed on 30 healthy volunteer and 30 vitiligo patients. The protein contents of samples were determined according to Lowry method. GSHPx activity measured according to the method of Lawrence. These changes may the result of epidermal oxidative stress, or plasma antioxidant systems involving the pathogenesis of vitiligo primarily.

The main function of the shunt seems to be protect the against oxidative damage. Deficiency of G6PD is the most common inherited enzyme defect known worldwide. The proportion of G6PD enzyme deficiency found as 8. In this study we investigated effect of malondialdehyde on G6PD activity and membrane protein abnormalities in vitro.

Malondialdehyde levels in plasma were measured by thiobarbituric acid assay. Erythrocyte ghosts were prepared according to Dodge method and membrane proteins were separeted using 8. Although in a previous in vivo study shown that MDA inactivated the enzyme, and the amount of inactivation increased with MDA concentration, but we found high level of MDA only one case which has high enzyme activity and other cases were had normal level of MDA.

In all of cases were determined deficiencies ankyrin and band 4. Red blood cell memrrane is protected from oxidative agents the normal period of approximately days of RBC. In this study investigation of proteine chemistry of G6PD enzyme and determination of variants of the family with G6PD deficiency have been intended.

G6PD enzyme of 23 cases were isolated and partially purified by using DE anion exchange chromatography. Among the cases in the same family value of G6PD was zero in 3 cases from These kinetic properties were found same of the G6PD Mediterranean. Glutathione and glutathionedependent enzymes play central role in cellular defense against toxic agents and glutathione homeostasis can have effects on the sensitivity of cancer cells to a wide range of drugs.

The aim of the present work was to study the state of glutathione system of brain tissue under administration of methotrexate alone and combined with its antidote calcium folinate. The significant decrease of the total glutathione and its reduced form contents in forebrain homogenates was marked.

The oxidized glutathione contents did not change. The increase of the phospholipids content and antioxidizing capacity of brain tissue was also observed, which most probably might be explained by the activation of adaptation processes of an organism.

The combined injections of calcium folinate Thus, the results obtained enable us to conclude that antitoxic effect of calcium folinate can be at least partly mediated by stabilization of glutathione homeostasis of neuronal cells.

The viability of macrophages was determined using ATP bioluminescence as a criterion of cell viability. It was better expressed in the case of chlorpromazine, followed by trifluoperazine, thioridazine, and less expressed in the case of promethazine and levopromazine. Moreover, it was found that all drugs enhanced dose-dependently the viability of macrophages, estimated by ATP production. Presumably the drugs have an immunomodulating effect on rat peritoneal macrophages. DNA samples were isolated from total of 61 individuals 13 familial and 5 isolated cases.

Mitochondrial fractions of the brain synaptosomes from adult intact and ovariectomized OVX female rats were obtained by ficoll gradient. Estrus cycles of intact female rats were determined since female rats were in different phase of the cycle. Estradiol at concentrations up to 1 nmol. The results presented suggest that estradiol at concentrations near to physiological has no effect at enzymatic activity of F0F1-ATPase in synaptosomal mitochondria, and that the difference in enzymatic activity between intact and OVX rats may be in some kind of dependence of another gonadal steroid hormone, progesterone.

Two different mutations previously reported, were detected in CYP1B1 gene in buphthalmos patients. The detection of the mutations in CYP1B1 gene will be helpful in early diagnosis of the disease, further understanding of its genetic base and the role of CYP1B1 gene in development and differentiation.

Fourtyeight female Wistar albino rats were divided into two groups; one for 50 days and the other for days. Experimental rats were put into plexiglass cages in order to exposure, at the 50 Hz frequency with 1mT intensity of magnetic field for three hours per day. The same experiment was applied to the control group without applying magnetic field for three hours. The rats died after 50 and days application. The uterus of rats were examined hystopathologically under the light microscope.

MDA values were found on the overs and uterus. Hystopathological results were found meaningful on the uterus between the experimental and control groups after 50 and days application.

The MDA results of rat overs and uterus were found statistically meaningful while compared with experimental and control groups after 50 and days. In this study, HTB human melanoma cells were used as a model system to study the role of cell senescence and glucocorticoid treatment triamcinolone acetonide, TA and dexamethasone, Dex in regulation of cell growth, cell cycle and induction of apoptotic cell death. Melanoma cells were grown in culture up to nine days post plating.

Untreated HTB cells reach maximal growth 7 days post plating. The significant decrease of proliferative activity of untreated cells, measured by incorporation of BrdU, was observed 9 days post plating. Single treatment with synthetic glucocorticoid hormones TA or Dex, 0. Flow cytometric analysis has confirmed these results. The spontaneous appearance of apoptotic cell death, during cell senescence of HTB melanoma cells, was detected in DNAs isolated from samples maintained in cultures from 6 to 9 days.

Single treatment of analyzed cells with 0. Flow cytometric analysis of cell samples has shown changes in cell cycle distribution. The obtained results have shown that cell senescence as well as treatment with glucocorticoid hormones modulate cell growth, cell cycle distribution and induce apoptotic cell death in analyzed human melanoma cells.

The effects of enzymes indicating oxidative stress were also seen in subjects with hyperthyroidism. However, those effects have not been investigated sufficiently in subjects with subclinical hyperthyroidism.

In this study we aimed to estimate the effects of the damage which was caused by free radicals over the activity of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase SOD in subjects with subclinical hyperthyroidism and to investigate the plasma levels of malondialdehyde MDA as a demonstration of oxidative stress.

Comparisons were made regarding with levels of erythrocyte SOD and plasma MDA levels between subjects with and without subclinical hyperthyroidism control group.

Both groups had similar age and sex. Mann-Whitney U test was used as statistical analyses. Of the subjects with subclinical hyperthyroidism consisting of 16 female and 4 male, mean age was Of the control group consisting of 13 female and 5 male, mean age was In conclusion; subclinical hyperthyroidism gives rise to oxidative stress, high levels of free radicals inside the cells increase the MDA levels and organism defends itself from the effects of oxidative stress by increasing SOD activity as a protection.

No increase was observed at micronuclei frequency after US examination. Totally Funda S. Medical FacultyDept. A mobile phone sends and receives information voice messages, fax, computer data, etc by radiocommunication. Radiofrequency signals are transmitted from the phone to the nearest base station and incoming signals are sent from the base station to the phone.

The possible biological effects of mobile phones and base stations is not clear yet. Therefore it is the most popular subject to research. The research studies on this subject could be classified as follows: Funda S. Medical Faculty, Dept. It is well known that ionising radiation induces chromosomal aberrations in the living cells. However the biological effects of non-ionizing radiation is not clear.

Micronucleus appears as a separate small nucleus in the cytoplasm in addition to the main nucleus in the cell. They originated either from acentric chromatin materials or whole chromosomes that were not included into daughter nuclei during mitotic divisions. If you detect micronucleus formation, you can be quite sure that genetic damage has occurred. For this reason, this method has become particularly suitable for the investigation and understanding of the mechanism of the effect of certain agents.

In order to evaluate the biological effect of MRI system, in-vitro study has been established.

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The static magnetic fields and its combine effects with radio frequency were examined. There was no significant contribution of Turk J Biochem, ; 28 3radiofrequency on micronuclei yield. However, static magnetic fields slightly increased micronuclei yield depending on duration of exposure.

Cancer: According to last WHO report 1all established health effects of non-ionizing radiation exposure are clearly related to heating. There are conflicting epidemiological studies on mobile phones and base stations have cancer risk for human 5,6,7,8,9. There are no obvious associations between the site of exposure and regions of the brain from which effects are reported or implied. There is also shown that mobile phones can affect short time memory 14.

In this review we attempt to compare the mobile phone studies that performed by different researcher and to make decision whether mobile phone safe for human beings or not. This is a major problem in the anti-AIDS therapy, and precise techniques, able to analyze and predict the biological activity for new inhibitors, are needed. During the past few years the use of neural networks in the quantitative structure-activity relation proved to be very useful for the HIV-1 protease inhibitor affinity prediction.

In this work we present an analysis of the main physicochemical properties that determine the biological activity of cyclic urea derivatives obtained using a three-layered feed-forward neural network, trained by LevenbergMarquardt algorithm. The molecular descriptors used to define the HIV-1 protease inhibitors are: the molecular volume, hydrophobicity, dipole moment and a 'steric factor'.

We based our analysis on 42 urea derived inhibitors of known biological activity. A preliminary analysis showed that prediction is very poor for inhibitors presenting extreme values for the molecular descriptors so these items were included in the training set.

We have tested 49 different architectures and 6 different combinations of molecular descriptors for the input vectors. Given the random start of the error minimization procedure, the prediction experiment was repeated 30 times.

For each architecture and set of descriptors the accuracy was evaluated as the difference between the predicted and experimental biological activity. Based on this, properties we found that properties such as hydrophobicity and dipolar moment are more important for proteininhibitor interaction than volume and stericity. Steven Wiley Current studies on cell physiology are usually done using cells cultured on two-dimensional surfaces.

This geometry greatly simplifies the methodology used to observe and propagate cells. However, this places great constraints on how one can investigate intercellular communication. Understanding cellular responses under more physiological Turk J Biochem, ; 28 3conditions, however, necessitates development of technical approaches for observing signaling events under more realistic conditions.

We are currently developing the tools necessary for analyzing cell signaling in a threedimensional environment. To build the high-speed system, it was necessary to use a Nipkow disk confocal head that feeds into two sensitive intensified CCD cameras using a beam splitter. A secondary benefit of this design is that high quality color images can be acquired using very little excitation light. This greatly reduces cell phototoxicity and extends the time during which cells can be observed.

We have tested this system using fluorescently labeled antibodies against cell surface proteins, such as the EGF receptor, and have demonstrated the ability to acquire 3D images over an extended time period.

The speed, sensitivity and spectral flexibility of this system provide an ideal platform for analyzing signaling events in living cells. It this work it was investigated the influence of cyclophosphamide on activity of peroxidase, which was responsible for splitting hydrogen peroxide formed during oxidation stress in molecular structures, and superoxide dismutase, which was responsible for inhibition of generation of superoxide radical as well as the alteration of value of redox potential under presence of cyclophosphamide, which expressed the redox balance in organism.

As biological target there was used homogenate of brain of cow. It was found that during isometric contractions of the muscle, the stiffness increased linearly with the isometric force; and the slope of the stiffness-force relation is 1. In addition, it was observed that the slope of the stiffness-force relationship depends on the preload applied to the muscle.

When the experimental results obtained from the portal vein were compared with the theoretical results calculated from the models, it was seen that none of the models could fully represent the portal vein.

However Maxwell model can be used if it is assumed that series elastic element of the model has a preload depended stiffness properties. Pinar T. Ozand MD, Ph. Saudi Arabia has an inordinately large number of autosomal recessive diseases. Hence primary TSH screening is the preferred method for screening in Turkey.

An average physician in this part of the world is not well aware of this disease and missed diagnoses lead to death and crippling. While successful treatments are available.

Homocystine is an end product of methionine metabolism. It is toxic and will destroy Fibrillin. This leads to the dolicostenomelic features and cataracts of lens. It also damages vascular endothelium causing thrombosis. There are two systems that get rid of it: 1 conversion to cystathionine, 2 conversion into methionine by methionine synthetase.

The deficiency of cystathionine synthetase, the first pathway, leads to the accumulation of very high levels of homocystine. The toxic effects start appearing at years of age with classic clinical picture of HCU. The deficiency of methionine synthetase system leads usually to very early symptomatology mainly characterized by failure of the development of CNS. This usually is caused by the deficiency of the cofactors of methionine synthetase, methylene-tetrahydrofolic MTHF acid and methylcobalamine.

These latter forms have milder elevations of homocystine and very low levels of methionine and are almost always missed. The existence of a tandem MS has changed the prognosis of both forms of this disease. Early detection of CH through newborn screening proved to be one of the great successes of preventive medicine. The screening should be oriented to detection of primary hypothyroidism. Simultaneous measurement of both T4 and TSH in dried blood spots is the most sensitive method to that effect, however it is not cost-effective.

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Profiling of amino acids and acylcarnitines in a single analysis has enabled newborn screening programs to expand testing to include up to 30 treatable inborn error of metabolism IEM. Besides the increase in the number of diseases covered, tandem MS has also improved testing from an analytical point of view. The false positive rates are lowered because disorders are identified not only on the basis of quantification of metabolites but also by the screening for a pattern of metabolite abnormalities as opposed to screening for a single metabolite and also by measuring metabolite ratios.

The metabolic pathways and rationale for treatment of HCU will be discussed. Within the first group, three babies with PKU and one with Citrullinemia were identified. In the latter group, we identified 8 amino acid disorders, 4 urea cycle defects, 7 organic acidemias and 1 fatty acid oxidation defect. Early diagnosis and treatment prevents brain damage and the ensuing mental retardation. The recall rate was quite high at 2.

We identified 15 amino acid disorders and 13 organic acidemias The conclusions we can deduct from our experience with screening for IEM by tandem mass spectrometry are 1. The overall frequency of IEM is high in our country and newborn screening for these disorders at least in a selected high risk group will be cost effective both for the family and for the society in the long run. Quite a number of treatable IEM can be rapidly diagnosed from a very simple samplenamely a dried blood spot which is both easy to obtain, to tranport and to store.

This advantage should be made use of for screening IEM especially in states of emergency and in cases where laboratories capable of performing advanced metabolic tests are not readily available. Some of these areas are: Pre implantation genetics, detection of metabolic diseases of foetus and screening for treatable metabolic diseases of new born.

Also, at the time, approach to disease detection is to look for mutations on the gene, but there are variations of mutations in each and every country even in the same country at different locations and sequence analysis is not a screening test.

This area is named foetal biochemistry and many biochemistry laboratories are shifting interest to this area. Without any doubt, the diagnosis of the diseases and abortion after the diagnosis will be within the frame of prenatal rules. Foetal biochemistry will be the starting point for in utero genetic treatments in near future. We have aimed to share our experiment and knowledge on foetal biochemistry with our colleagues with this presentation.

Laboratory medicine is an important discipline in health care with its remarkable effect on risk assessment, diagnosis of health and disease state and especially from newborn screening approach with its, retest, recall and follow-up procedures. This real life trial, emphasizes the need of split sample design evaluation of newly opened test kits.

Quantitative measurement of phenylalanine and nTSH neonatal thyroid stimulating hormone were performed in both of the laboratories. After validation of calibrations were performed in the laboratory that used these industrially prepared screening kits for the first time, the same real newborn blood spot samples were analysed for phenylalanine and nTSH measurements in both of the laboratories and the obtained results were compared non parametrically and examined by the Deming regression graph and by the difference plot.

However, nTSH values were found to be significantly higher in the laboratory that used the nTSH kit for the first time. This work implies that acceptable comparability of split sample design analysis is strictly needed for testing the analytical performance of the industrially prepared tests kits and this can be achieved only by certified reference materials.

These disorders which are mainly seen in the newborn period and early childhood are characterized by the high levels of one or more than one amino acids in the plasma or urine due to the enzyme deficiency. In the light of these points, accurate, sensitive and prompt amino acid analysis in biological fluids is very important. Blood, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, vitreous fluid and amnion fluid are used for the diagnosis of disorders of amino acid metabolism.

The analytical techniques for the measurement of amino acids can be investigated in two parts as screening tests and quantitative methods. Screening tests including Guthrie test, thin layer chromatography, paper chromatography, photometric methods and spot tests in the urine. In the recent years a world wide and important technique, that could screen many metabolic diseases in a single analytical step named tandem mass spectrometry has been used for this purpose.

Among the tests those are used for the quantitative measurement of amino acids are capillary electrophoresis, gas-liquid chromatography, high pressure liquid chromatography, ion-exchange liquid chromatography amino acid analayzer and tandem mass spectrometry.

High resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and molecular analysis are also used in amino acid measurements. Tandem mass spectrometry TMS is an analytical technique that can be implemented in the analysis of blood spots taken shortly after birth.

Rather than testing the blood for the presence of just one compound e. MCAD deficiency and some organic acidemias e. One of the most recent and effective technic of those is tandem mass spectrometry. Tandem mass spectrometry is a very important analytical technique that could determine many metabolic diseases from one blood sample in a very short time in a single analytical step. Phenylketonuria, hyperphenylalaninemia, maple syrup urine disease, tyrosinemia type I and II, homocystinuria, hypermethioninemia are the disorders of amino acid metabolism those could be determined by tandem mass spectrometry.

In addition to amino acid disorders fatty acid oxidation disorders, organic acidemias and urea cycle defects could also be determined by tandem mass spectrometry.

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This technique detects well amino acids and acylcarnitines; at this moment however it is still impossible to screen for congenital hypothyroidism or biotinidase deficiency, and there is only a limited experience in screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia using this technique. In the newborn period, screening tests were begun by the screening of phenylketonuria which is a kind of bacterial inhibition test progressed by Robert Guthrie.

Thin layer chromatography and paper chromatography are chromatographic methods those are used for the separation and determination of amino acids. The sensitivity of the screening by TMS is high but the specificity can be rather low with a high rate of false positives resulting in a high number of retests and recalls: e. A broad screening program also involves the detection of non-diseases e. MCAD def. In quantitative amino acid analysis with high pressure liquid chromatography the main steps of the method are the pre-column derivatization of the amino acids with phenylisothiocyanate, o-phthalaldehyde and other similar compounds, separation in reversed-phase column and detection with either ultraviolet or fluorescence detectors.

In amino acid analayzer the main part of the system is ionexchange column, followed by gradient elution. Long period of investigation is a disadvantage for these methods.

The great danger in my opinion of the technique of TMS is that labs that have no experience whatsoever with screening, will take over the newborn mass screening solely on the base that they possess such an instrument, Amino acid levels in body fluids are influenced by a number of factors, such as age, physiological changes, nutritional status, diseases, medications and toxins.

Also the factors such as collection time, transportation and keeping of the samples are very important. As a conclusion to gain success in the treatment and to prevent permanent sequels due to disorders of amino acid metabolism which makes up a great part of metabolic diseases, early diagnosis and treatment is highly important. Polycystic ovary syndrome PCOS is the most common reproductive endocrinopathy of women in their childbearing years.

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Current data demonstrate that type 2 diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia are more frequent among women with PCOS which is a form of functional ovarian hyperandrogenism.

The most likely cause of increased androgen production by both the ovaries and the adrenals is abnormal regulation of hydroxylase and lyase activation of Pc17 enzyme. Insulin resistance, at least in part, is responsible for the elevated androgen production. Recent data suggest that amelioration of insulin resistance may lead to improved hyperandrogenism. Sugars used to provide energy for the body include glucose, sucrose, fructose among many others.

Some sugars need to be broken down, usually by enzymes, before they can be used by the body. If the enzymes needed are not present usually due to an inherited disorderthese sugars can build up and cause problems. The type of problem depends on the sugar involved and the localization of the enzyme defect.

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Most of the inherited disorders of carbohydrate metabolism fall into a few broad clinical syndromes. Hepatomegaly, convulsions, hyperbilirubinemia, cataract, mental retardation, diarrhea, episodic lactic acidosis from early infancy, failure to thrive, and hypotonia are most common signs and symptoms.

The demonstration of defective enzyme activity must serve as the basis of diagnosis and treatment. One the other hand a negativ feed back system operates between Cortisol Leptin and Insulin.

Insulin and Cortisol stimulate the production and the secretion of Leptin. In turn Leptin inhibits the secretion of Insulin. It is advised to check acylcarnitine levels, especially octanoylcarnitine by tandom-MS, in blood samples taken for screening of phenylketonuria and neonatal hypothyroidism. Besides the Hypothalamic peptides, intestinal peptides play roles in the control of appetite. Catabolism of these lipids contains enzymes and activator proteins. A new lysosomal digestion model was developed and mechanisms of glycosphingolipids hydrolysis within the lysosome was understood.

The discovery of sphingolipid activator proteins was an important factor in this process. By investigating the molecular basis of the diseases, basic principles of storage disease pathology begin to understood and several mechanisms were described in the pathogenesis.

However, our understanding of pathogenesis in these diseases is incomplete. The generation of mouse models and sphingolipid research on cell signaling will help to investigate the pathophysiology and have facilitated the development of new and promising therapeutic strategies for these diseases, most of which are not treatable at present.

Currently few options exist for therapy. One of these is enzyme replacement therapy ERT that has been a highly effective therapy in type 1 Gaucher disease and more recently has been undertaken in Fabry disease. ERT is not beneficial to the neuronopathic form of glycosphingolipidoses. Gene therapy holds considerable promise for this family of diseases and evaluation in mouse models is a major way forward in evaluating different gene delivery systems and evaluating efficacy.

Small-molecule drugs have recently emerged as candidate therapeutics for juvenile and adult forms of glycosphingolipidoses. The approach is to use inhibitors of glycosphingolipid biosynthesis and thereby reduce the number of glycosphingolipid molecules the cells degrade. These drugs have been evaluated multiple mouse models of glycosphingolipidoses, including those with brain involvement.

In all cases efficacy has been demonstrated. Mersin University, Mersin, Turkey Disorders of lipid metabolism will be discussed in two major categories.

One of them is composed of frequently seen lipoprotein disorders in clinical biochemistry laboratories. Different disorders of lipoprotein metabolism are triggered by apolipoproteins, enzymes, and lipoprotein receptors, some clinically characterized by hyperlipoproteinemia. These disorders can be classified under seven titles according to Frederickson and WHO.

Hypolipoproteinemias which are not seen as frequent as hyperlipoproteinemias are also types of lipoprotein metabolism disorders. Routine tests such as total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, lipoprotein aapo AI, and apo B, and spesific tests such as HDL subfractions, lipoprotein a isoforms, apo E polymorphism, apo Bapo CII-apo CIII mutations, and hepatic lipase-lipoprotein lipase, lechitine cholesterol acyl transferase activities are being used to determine the etiopathogenesis of lipoprotein metabolism disorders.

The second category of the lipid metabolism disorders is composed of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation defects. These disorders are caused by a group of enzyme deficiencies and transport defects, and clinically characterized by hypoglycemic-hypoketotic coma, induced by fasting. In acute phase of these disorders, serum electrolytes, glucose, ammonia, transaminase levels are routine screening tests, while carnitine-acylcarnitine levels, and acylcarnitine profiles, urinary organic acid analyses by GC-MS, measurements of enzyme activities, and mutation analyses are required in determining the etiology.

With its Turk J Biochem, ; 28 3It is interesting to reflect that diseases that glycolipid catabolism helped unravel the basic biochemistry of glycolipids and this knowledge, in turn, has led to new therapies for these diseases. The science has therefore gone full circle from disease to basic biochemistry to disease therapy. P1 Our study was carried out in patients with type II diabetes mellitus T2DM men, women and healthy volunteers as controls 91 men, women.

Serum Hcy levels were measured in the fasting state by immunological assay. This brought about biomass increase times. The scientific work carried out at our laboratory based on a numhed accumulation of yeast biomass and the content of free proline in it is established.

The scientific work carried out at our laboratory based on a number of research objects haricot butterfly, pea shoot, infusorian, rat mammary gland confirm that the intensively growing plants and animal cells oxidise the free proline at a maximal rate.

The results show the identity of ADA2 obtained and enzyme from blood serum. The difference of their values for two isoforms was of the same order The results show the similarity in structural environment of isoenzymes active centers, responsible for the adenine binding. At the same time supression of some enzymes and their izoenzymes activity was observed. Under the influence of these extracts there is an abrupt fall in the overall activity of arginaza and enzymes of proline biosynthesis.

The activity of two arginaza izoenzymes and enzymes of proline biosynthesis of yeasts Candida guilliermondii is also sharply supressed. The activity of highmolecular and lowmolecular arginaza izoenzymes is supressed under the influence of St. Under the influence of milfoil absint, motherword and St. The herbs which are studied have the property of curing certain diseases.

They are successfully used to cure diabetes, kidney and digestion system diseases and some others. The herbs investigated by us contain proline in considerable amount. The protector role of proline was proved in extremal conditions, in particular, in radiation destruction of the organizm.

Several factors are discussed in pathogenesis of BPH, including aging, hormonal factors and diet. All of them can affect lipid levels in the organism. So, our aim was to characterize lipid parameters in patients with BPH. Cross-section analysis on 78 consecutive patients mean age Borderline, high or very high values of LDL were observed in In Our study reveals patients with BPH as a population with a high dyslipidemia prevalence. Further studies are needed to elucidate role of dyslipidemia in BPH.

Nevertheless, our results indicate that attention must be paid on patients with BPH, because of the possible impairment of cardiovascular risk profile. The physiological role of ADA2 is poorly understood. P6 The goal of the present work was the investigation of molecular and kinetic properties of purified ADA2 from pleural fluid and its comparison with the serum ADA2.

The molecular weight kDa, pH maximum at 5. This compounds autacoids have membrane protective, antioxidative properties under degenerative, ischemic conditions and toxic damage. However the mechanism of transport of the exogenic saturated N-acylethanolamines in mammalian is not clear. The aim of the study was to investigate regional distribution of exogenic NSE in rat brain and to evaluate effect of NSE on the stereroidogenesis and the lipid composistion of the rat brain under X-ray ionization.

For these purposes radioisotope label method, spectrofluorimetry, thin-layer and gas-liquid chromatography were used. The aim of the study was to investigate of the putative mechanism of NAEs transport in mammalian blood.

For these purposes radioisotope label method, spectrofluorimetry, thin-layer and computing modeling were used.

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Rats were administrated with radiolabeled NSE per os. Hypothalamus, cerebellum, brain cortex, white matter, brain stem, pituitary and adrenal glands were studied. It was found that labeled NSE were primarily accumulated in hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal glands. Radiolabeled N-[9,H]-palmitoyethanolamine was administrated to rats per os. Whole blood were collected and plasma was obtained.

The plasma protein fractions after HPLC were collected at the scintillation vials and radioactivity was measured. The higher radioactivity was found in the albumine fraction.

Rats were irradiated by X-ray with 2 Gy dose. Through 2 weeks after irradiation the quantity of palmitic acid in brain phospholipids and plasmalogen form of phosphatydilcholine were increased, free cholesterol and diacyl-form of phosphatydilcholine were decreased and Nacylated glycerophospholipids were accumulated. NSE pretreatment prevented these changes.

This indicate a possibility of the existing of NSE binding site on albumine. The dynamical and structural properties of HSA-NSE complex have been investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. The accumulation of radiolabeled NSE in brain indicates it penetration through hematoencephalic barrier and speculated possible role of NSE in the brain functioning and stress response regulation by hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal gland system.

NSE reveals protective effect on brain cell membranes under the X-ray ionization. The infrastructure is based on an open distributed computing platform, and its specification is described using the open distributed processing reference model. The design and specification of a framework for the interoperability of existing systems and new advanced services are describe, and consequently, concentrates on the issue of integration.

Laboratory Automation is essential to release laboratory technicians from simple routine work, allowing them to make use of their time for more skilled tasks. Viral infections often alter physiological systems in the host. Viral diseases were diagnosed by the micro-complement fixation test.

The results are shown in Table 1. IGFBP1 was not detected. The statistical significance of differences between groups was assessed by the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test.

Also total protein and albumin levels were determined from all group of samples and no significant changes were observed. Table 1. In group I, all three tests were in reference limits.

These concentration changes in FT3, can be due to the same reasons with high temperature states in body. It is postulated that the released T4 might play a critical role in response to infection by providing a supply of iodine for antibacterial purposes.

Thus, FT3 is left behind which is given to the plasma. Although the biophysical theory of macromolecular crowding is well developed, there are not many biochemical data on the macromolecular crowding effect on protein interactions, especially enzymes. The aim of the present work was to examine the effect of macromolecular crowding on the native and denatured enzymes. The crowding conditions have been realized with high concentrations of polysaccharide dextran, polyethylene glycol and proteins BSAas crowding agents.

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These agents are inert, and did not interact with any of the enzymatic activities assayed glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, leucine amino peptidase, malate dehydrogenase and lysozyme. However, after hours of incubation in the presence of crowding agents, the enzymes showed partial inactivation or a slight increase of activity, depending on the nature of the enzyme and of the crowding agent. The results concerning the enzymes denatured by chemical agents GuHCl, ureaheat or glycation are also different for each denaturing procedure.

None of the agents protect the enzymes against glycation-induced inactivation, whereas they significantly increase the yield of reactivation of chemically-denatured leucine amino peptidase.

It is obvious from these results that the possible influence of crowding upon a particular enzymatic reaction should be considered for a proper understanding of its physiological role. It has been shown that glycation of insulin resulted in reduced biological activity glucose transport and metabolism, cell growth, and mitogenesisbut little has been published on the effect of glycation on structural stability and integrity of insulin molecule.

In the present work, insulin was in vitro glycated by various sugars glucose, fructose and ribose and changes such those of the absorption and fluorescence emission spectra were demonstrated. Cross-linking and aggregation have also been demonstrated in the glycated insulin. The possibility to prevent these changes has been studied using natural compounds proline, pyruvate and carnosine, as well as the drug aminoguanidine.

The results indicated that these compounds partially protected insulin against the structural changes induced by glycation, at different stages of glycation, acting by different mechanisms.

The NDP kinase holoenzymes consist of 6 subunits, the catalytic subunits display a low molecular weight Addition of NaCl 0. Autophosphorylation of the isoforms requires no metal, but when metal is added it occurs at a wider range of pH values. Hydrolysis of the two isoforms followed by T.

Antibodies raised against each of the two isoforms were capable of reacting with both of them. The transfer reaction exhibited two optimum pH values pH 7 and 9 for purine and pyrimidine, ribo- and deoxyribo-diphosphonucleosides.

The deleterious cumulative effects of the advanced glycation end-products AGEs are felt after months or years, whereas insulin plasma half-life under normal conditions is less than min.

More recently, insulin glycation has been demonstrated in pancreatic and islet extracts from various animal models of diabetes type 2, in clonal insulin-secreting cells maintained under hyperglycemic conditions in culture and in diabetic plasma. The substrate preference these enzymes display towards UDP suggest that they play a central role in the biosynthesis of cellulose and starch, two polysaccharides essential for the development of endosperm.

Chlorophyll fluorescence and oxygen evolution was measured for evaluating the seedlings response to irradiation. Alfa were supplied with M, M and 5. These compounds appeared 4 h after UV-B treatment, reached maximum after 24 h and then declined. The content of these compounds enhanced in the plants treated with proline before UV-B irradiation and decreased as a result of NaCl pre-treatment in a concentration depending manner.

The post-treatment light regimes affect the level of A - decreased in the light and increased in darkness. The syntheses of UV-absorbing compounds extracted in acidified methanol continued for a long period after UV exposure and after h the values of A are higher. The post-treatment light regimes do not affect the level of UV-absorbing compounds. Apart of high absorption at nm, three different maxima atand nm were observed. In contrast to the absorbance at nm, the intensities of these bands decreased h after irradiation.

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NaCl pre-treatment is more effective in reduction of the absorbance in the region than proline. Objective: The lysine-rich histones H1 the so-called linker histones are involved in the formation and maintenance of higher order chromatin structures. They also act as non-specific repressors of transcription. The number of H1 subtypes and their amino acid composition vary between different species, and subtypes are also diversely distributed in various types of tissues and cells of different maturity status.

Two structurally related H1 variants H10 and H5 have been identified as differentiation-dependent. The apparent diversity of H1 subtypes may be related to their specific role in defining functional states of chromatin in vivo. It has been suggested that the subtypes of histone H1 may differ in their ability to condense chromatin.

The aim of this study was to investigate the binding properties of both H10 and H5 histones compared to the main H1 subfraction. Methods: Cultured human fibroblasts AG were H1depleted by 0.

Thereafter, the cells were reconstituted with purified mouse main H1, H10 or avian H5 linker histones subfractions. The presence of H1 histones in nuclei was verified in the reconstitution experiments using Alexa-labeled H1. Reconstituted histones were extracted with salt concentrations in the range of 0.

The affinity binding of H1 histone subfractions to chromatin was analyzed by image cytofluorometry, using DAPI as an indirect probe. There was not correlation between the level of A and UV-B tolerance of barley seedlings. It is possible these compounds to serve as stress markers and not for stress protectors.

Results and Conclusions: The exogenous linker histones H10 and main H1 bound to chromatin with lower affinity than the native ones.

However, we could not detect any significant differences between the main H1 and H10 histone subfractions in their affinity for chromatin. We conclude that H1 histone interactions with chromatin are controlled by mechanisms independent from H1 histone subtype composition.

On the other hand, the exogenous histone H5 is more tightly bound to chromatin, compared to the other H1 subvariants, due most probably to the relatively high content of arginine.

No rooting occurred in cuttings without IBA-treatment. Both genotypes showed similar patterns of soluble as well as wall ionically bound cationic peroxidase isoforms. The number of isoforms was unchanged during the rooting process induction, initiation and expression phase but an increase in peroxidase activity initiation phase followed by decrease has been found in IBA-treated cuttings. Microscopic observations revealed anatomical differences between genotypes.

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NDPK E. According to our studies Alyssum murale a nickel-accumulator plant expressed a new endo-DNase it showed nicking action against plasmid DNA isoform under Ni or Mn toxicity in both root and shoot. The DNase electrophoretic patterns were similar in root and shoot and revealed four DNase isoforms in different intensities.

In contrast, different accumulation of a number of RNase isoforms were observed in roots versus shoots indicating that some RNases are controlled in an organ specific manner. Our studies on active gel analysis and SDS-electrophoresis showed that they could be used in studying the responses of enzymes taking part in the metabolism of nucleic acids under metal toxicity. Recently, the increase in levels of soluble adhesion molecules SAMs has been proposed as a potential marker of endothelium derangement.

The aim of this work, therefore, was to evaluate whether a new generation antioxidant Activin derived from the grape seed proanthocyanidins, could reduce the induction of SAMs and decrease the oxidative stress in scleroderma patients. Plasma was obtained in fasting state between 8 to 9 a. The circulating levels of SAMs except for sP-selectin were significantly increased in scleroderma patients.

In conclusion our results demonstrate the beneficial effect of Activin, which could reduce the inflammatory response and oxidative stress developed in scleroderma patients.

Ozlem B. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme ACE ; a component of reninangiotensin system has an important role in the regulation of blood pressure. Zinc Zna trace element with important biological functions, is located in the catalytic site of ACE.

Calcium Camagnesium Mgsodium Napotassium K also appear to be involved in hypertension pathogenesis. ACE activities in plasma samples were determined by a quantitative kinetic method. Plasma Ca analyses were performed by the spectrophotometric measurement of the purple color of Ca- cresolphthalein complexone complex. Plasma Mg, ionized Ca, Na and K levels were determined by automated methods. Plasma Na, K and Cai levels remained normal in essential hypertension.

There are complex associations between arterial pressure. Ca and Mg deficiencies seem to be associated with increased prevalence of hypertension. Increases in erythrocyte Zn may have a future potential use for diagnosis of hypertension. The relations among these parameters in different steps of asthma were interpreted. Association of them with airway inflammation observed in patients with bronchial asthma as well as the roles and the contributions to the pathological processes were evaluated.

A total of 62 individuals, 32 asthmatics and 30 controls, were included into the scope of this study. Considering the facts that NO modulates the catalytic activity of MPO and induces the expression of heme oxygenase as the important contributor to the mechanisms causing free Fe release; it is concluded that elevated NO, MPO and Fe levels observed in the asthmatic group act in a harmonic manner and appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of asthma.

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Nitric oxide concentrations were determined by using Greiss reaction in plasma and vitreous humor samples. Glutathione levels were determined in blood and vitreous humor samples, using DTNB, a disulfide chromogen.

Twenty- three patients with PDR, 18 patients with PVR and 21 cadavers as the control group were included in the study. Plasma and vitreous NO levels were Blood and vitreous GSH levels were 5. Hb, 0. Hb, The results indicate that adaptation to chronic stress involves the mechanisms which alter the stress-specific SOD response to acute stress.

Kiril and Methodij University", Skopje 3 Biochemical Laboratory, Medical Center, Bitola Macedonia Aim: This study was undertaken to determine the correlation between concentration of calcium Ca and phosphorus P with the age - young pubertal boys and girls and persons over 65 years. The results were statistically analyzed by the Student's t-test. In order to explain the role of antioxidant response in stress-induced injury, we examined the effects of two types of acute stress as well as combined effects of chronic and acute stress on MnSOD and CuZnSOD activity in rat brain cortex.

Female Wistar rats, 2. Conclusion: The obtained results suggest relationship between concentration of Ca and P with the age. The older persons have significant lower level of Ca and P compared with the young persons. Fluorescence microscopy may be used to identify amyloid plaques and tangles in the brain and other tissues of control.

We have incorporated protein structure methods into Matlab to generate routines for image processing. Once the desired structural images are obtained, correlation analysis can be performed with the fluorescence microscopy images. In mammals 8 different classes alpha, kappa, mu, omega, pi, sigma, theta and zeta of soluble GSTs have evolved with members that promote the detoxification of many structurally different electrophiles.

The evolution of proteins for novel functions involves point mutations and recombinations of domains or structural segments. Alkyl halides, epoxides and benzyl halides are substrates of GSTs. Substrates which were worked are industrial intermediates, laboratory reagents. It behaves as alkylating agents. Reports have shown them to cause the respiratory and dermal toxicity in animals and humans.

It has also been reported to be carcinogenic in experimental models. Thus, the wide-spread use of these aliphatic epoxides, halides is of great concern in human health problem. GST activities towards 1,2 Epoxy 4-nitrophenoxy propane EPNP and 4-nitrophenethyl bromide NPBstyrene 7,8 oxide, acrylonitrile, benzyl bromide benzyl chloride, epichlorohydrin, glycidol were measured. Reactions of substrates with glutathione were measured by following the disappearance of glutathione.

Activities were expressed as micromole of glutathione reacted per minute. The most active substrate which is epichlorohydrin with T, substratesaturation curve by varying its concentration at constant GSH concentration was prepared.

Thus, Km and Vm values were determined. National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, New York, USA Fluorescence-assisted synchrotron IR microspectroscopy permits us to identify target proteins with fluorochromes or fluorescent antibodies and simultaneously determine their Turk J Biochem, ; 28 3In order to generate IR images, the IR data was reduced to a relatively compact description through cluster analysis.

The principal function of clustering is to display so that the influences or causes in arriving a pathogenic state might be predicted. Desired function of clustering is to reveal the protein structures in an infected tissue. Result of the cluster analysis can contribute directly to classification schemes.

If the grouping suggested by the cluster analysis is to be adopted for operational use, then it may become the basis for classifying new observations. The developed software provides Linear Discriminant Analysis LDA option to perform classification based on the output of the cluster analysis. Nifedipine- as a calcium channel blocker- in pregnant women hypertension will prevent calcium accumulation and thus, will restore blood pressure.

The study was carried out on 25 third trimester pregnant women, aged between 25 and 35 years old, diagnosed with pregnancy induced hypertension PIHand treated with nifedipine. The results were compared with a control group- 20 third trimester normal pregnant women. As marker of lipid peroxidation we used malondialdehyde MDA. The increasing of antioxidant enzyme activities and GSH denotes a benefic response to nifedipine treatment and it is related to MDA decreasing, demonstrating that this drug might have antioxidant properties.

So, even UA decreased under treatment, its final value still remains higher demonstrating its predictive role in PIH. Proline accumulated under salt stress conditions might be one the reasons for the observed tolerance of barley seedlings to UV-B radiation. Among icosanoids, the prostaglandins PG are the most researched biological compounds knowing their involvement in normal and pathological processes. We studied the aminotransferases, total bilirubin in blood as markers of hepatic lesionsas well as antioxidant parameters glutathione peroxidase, glutathione in liver homogenates, in rats treated with IPEF and IPEE.

As marker of lipid peroxidation we determined malondialdehyde. We also compared the biochemical parameters with the histopathological cts. Bonchev str. The supposed protective role of high endogenous content of proline accumulated in the cells as a result of NaCl treatment in the light and the UV-B sensitivity of PSII as an in situ sensor for radiation stress was analyzed.

Turk J Biochem, ; 28 3Chlorophyll fluorescence and oxygen evolution was measured for evaluating the seedlings response to irradiation. NaCl treatment resulted in a decrease of total chlorophyll content and an increase in H2O2, free proline and lipid peroxidation, as quantified by measurement of malondialdehyde.

Significantly more proline was accumulated in the light than in darkness. The combination of UV-B and NaCl treatment produced an additive effect on most of the parameters studied. The disease is widely seen all over the world in spite of this etiology is still unknown. Recently, hydrogen peroxide accumulation and epidermal oxidative stress proposed as etiopathogenesis in vitiligo.

We suggest blood antioxidant systems could be affected or may be a part of disease. The study was performed on 30 healthy volunteer and 30 vitiligo patients. The protein contents of samples were determined according to Lowry method.

GSHPx activity measured according to the method of Lawrence. These changes may the result of epidermal oxidative stress, or plasma antioxidant systems involving the pathogenesis of vitiligo primarily.

The main function of the shunt seems to be protect the against oxidative damage. Deficiency of G6PD is the most common inherited enzyme defect known worldwide. The proportion of G6PD enzyme deficiency found as 8. In this study we investigated effect of malondialdehyde on G6PD activity and membrane protein abnormalities in vitro.

Malondialdehyde levels in plasma were measured by thiobarbituric acid assay. Erythrocyte ghosts were prepared according to Dodge method and membrane proteins were separeted using 8. Although in a previous in vivo study shown that MDA inactivated the enzyme, and the amount of inactivation increased with MDA concentration, but we found high level of MDA only one case which has high enzyme activity and other cases were had normal level of MDA.

In all of cases were determined deficiencies ankyrin and band 4. Red blood cell memrrane is protected from oxidative agents the normal period of approximately days of RBC. In this study investigation of proteine chemistry of G6PD enzyme and determination of variants of the family with G6PD deficiency have been intended.

G6PD enzyme of 23 cases were isolated and partially purified by using DE anion exchange chromatography. Among the cases in the same family value of G6PD was zero in 3 cases from These kinetic properties were found same of the G6PD Mediterranean.

Glutathione and glutathionedependent enzymes play central role in cellular defense against toxic agents and glutathione homeostasis can have effects on the sensitivity of cancer cells to a wide range of drugs. The aim of the present work was to study the state of glutathione system of brain tissue under administration of methotrexate alone and combined with its antidote calcium folinate.

The significant decrease of the total glutathione and its reduced form contents in forebrain homogenates was marked. The oxidized glutathione contents did not change. The increase of the phospholipids content and antioxidizing capacity of brain tissue was also observed, which most probably might be explained by the activation of adaptation processes of an organism. The combined injections of calcium folinate Thus, the results obtained enable us to conclude that antitoxic effect of calcium folinate can be at least partly mediated by stabilization of glutathione homeostasis of neuronal cells.

The viability of macrophages was determined using ATP bioluminescence as a criterion of cell viability.

It was better expressed in the case of chlorpromazine, followed by trifluoperazine, thioridazine, and less expressed in the case of promethazine and levopromazine. Moreover, it was found that all drugs enhanced dose-dependently the viability of macrophages, estimated by ATP production.

Presumably the drugs have an immunomodulating effect on rat peritoneal macrophages. DNA samples were isolated from total of 61 individuals 13 familial and 5 isolated cases. Mitochondrial fractions of the brain synaptosomes from adult intact and ovariectomized OVX female rats were obtained by ficoll gradient.

Estrus cycles of intact female rats were determined since female rats were in different phase of the cycle. Estradiol at concentrations up to 1 nmol. The results presented suggest that estradiol at concentrations near to physiological has no effect at enzymatic activity of F0F1-ATPase in synaptosomal mitochondria, and that the difference in enzymatic activity between intact and OVX rats may be in some kind of dependence of another gonadal steroid hormone, progesterone.

Two different mutations previously reported, were detected in CYP1B1 gene in buphthalmos patients. The detection of the mutations in CYP1B1 gene will be helpful in early diagnosis of the disease, further understanding of its genetic base and the role of CYP1B1 gene in development and differentiation. Fourtyeight female Wistar albino rats were divided into two groups; one for 50 days and the other for days.

Experimental rats were put into plexiglass cages in order to exposure, at the 50 Hz frequency with 1mT intensity of magnetic field for three hours per day. The same experiment was applied to the control group without applying magnetic field for three hours. The rats died after 50 and days application.

The uterus of rats were examined hystopathologically under the light microscope. MDA values were found on the overs and uterus. Hystopathological results were found meaningful on the uterus between the experimental and control groups after 50 and days application.

The MDA results of rat overs and uterus were found statistically meaningful while compared with experimental and control groups after 50 and days. In this study, HTB human melanoma cells were used as a model system to study the role of cell senescence and glucocorticoid treatment triamcinolone acetonide, TA and dexamethasone, Dex in regulation of cell growth, cell cycle and induction of apoptotic cell death.

Melanoma cells were grown in culture up to nine days post plating. Untreated HTB cells reach maximal growth 7 days post plating. The significant decrease of proliferative activity of untreated cells, measured by incorporation of BrdU, was observed 9 days post plating. Single treatment with synthetic glucocorticoid hormones TA or Dex, 0. Flow cytometric analysis has confirmed these results. The spontaneous appearance of apoptotic cell death, during cell senescence of HTB melanoma cells, was detected in DNAs isolated from samples maintained in cultures from 6 to 9 days.

Single treatment of analyzed cells with 0. Flow cytometric analysis of cell samples has shown changes in cell cycle distribution. The obtained results have shown that cell senescence as well as treatment with glucocorticoid hormones modulate cell growth, cell cycle distribution and induce apoptotic cell death in analyzed human melanoma cells.

The effects of enzymes indicating oxidative stress were also seen in subjects with hyperthyroidism. However, those effects have not been investigated sufficiently in subjects with subclinical hyperthyroidism. In this study we aimed to estimate the effects of the damage which was caused by free radicals over the activity of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase SOD in subjects with subclinical hyperthyroidism and to investigate the plasma levels of malondialdehyde MDA as a demonstration of oxidative stress.

Comparisons were made regarding with levels of erythrocyte SOD and plasma MDA levels between subjects with and without subclinical hyperthyroidism control group. Both groups had similar age and sex.

Mann-Whitney U test was used as statistical analyses. Of the subjects with subclinical hyperthyroidism consisting of 16 female and 4 male, mean age was Of the control group consisting of 13 female and 5 male, mean age was In conclusion; subclinical hyperthyroidism gives rise to oxidative stress, high levels of free radicals inside the cells increase the MDA levels and organism defends itself from the effects of oxidative stress by increasing SOD activity as a protection.

No increase was observed at micronuclei frequency after US examination. Totally Funda S. Medical FacultyDept. A mobile phone sends and receives information voice messages, fax, computer data, etc by radiocommunication. Radiofrequency signals are transmitted from the phone to the nearest base station and incoming signals are sent from the base station to the phone.

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The possible biological effects of mobile phones and base stations is not clear yet. Therefore it is the most popular subject to research. The research studies on this subject could be classified as follows: Funda S.

Medical Faculty, Dept. It is well known that ionising radiation induces chromosomal aberrations in the living cells. However the biological effects of non-ionizing radiation is not clear. Micronucleus appears as a separate small nucleus in the cytoplasm in addition to the main nucleus in the cell. They originated either from acentric chromatin materials or whole chromosomes that were not included into daughter nuclei during mitotic divisions.

If you detect micronucleus formation, you can be quite sure that genetic damage has occurred. For this reason, this method has become particularly suitable for the investigation and understanding of the mechanism of the effect of certain agents.

In order to evaluate the biological effect of MRI system, in-vitro study has been established. The static magnetic fields and its combine effects with radio frequency were examined. There was no significant contribution of Turk J Biochem, ; 28 3radiofrequency on micronuclei yield.

However, static magnetic fields slightly increased micronuclei yield depending on duration of exposure. Cancer: According to last WHO report 1all established health effects of non-ionizing radiation exposure are clearly related to heating.

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